A large-scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra, usually set to a narrative biblical text, is called oratorio
A ________ is a singer with a low range who usually takes comic roles. basso buffo
A popular keyboard instrument in which sound was produced by means of brass blades striking the strings was the clavichord
The _______ is a Lutheran congregational hymn tune. chorale
In Italy, music schools were often connected with orphanages
Baroque trio sonatas usually involve ________ performers. four
The main theme of a fugue is called the subject
An _________ is a play, set to music, sung to orchestral accompaniment, with scenery, costumes, and action. opera
The _____________ in an oratorio is especially important and serves either to comment on or to participate in the drama. chorus
A baroque musical composition usually expresses ___________ within the same movement. one basic mood
Bach’s personal musical style was drawn from all of the above
Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 is unusual in that it gives a solo role to the harpsichord
The large group of players in a concerto grosso is known as the tutti
A typical baroque operatic form was the da capo aria in ABA form in which the singer was expected to embellish the returning melody with ornamental tones
An ___________ is an orchestral composition performed before the curtain rises on a dramatic work. overture
Some indication of the acclaim and respect given Henry Purcell by his fellow Englishmen can be seen from the fact that he is buried in Westminster Abbey
Bach was recognized as the most eminent ___________ of his day. organist
In the baroque period, the ordinary citizen’s opportunities for hearing music usually came from the church
Congregational singing of chorales was an important way for people to participate directly in the service
The focus of a Handel oratorio is usually the chorus
A common variation form in the baroque is based on the use of a ground bass, or basso ostinato
Sets of dance-inspired instrumental movements are called suites
An operatic song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment is called aria
A polyphonic composition based on one main theme, a cornerstone of baroque music, is the fugue
During the middle baroque, the church modes gave way to major and minor scales
The main keyboard instruments of the baroque period were the organ and the harpsichord
Vivaldi spent most of his life working at an institution for orphaned and illegitimate girls in Venice
A sung piece, or choral work with or without vocal soloists, usually with orchestral accompaniment, is the cantata
A bass part together with numbers (figures) that specify the chords to be played above it, characteristic of the baroque, is called basso continuo
Very often an independent fugue is introduced by a short piece called a(n) prelude
In the baroque era, dynamics consisted mainly of sudden alterations between loud and soft called terraced dynamics
The early and late baroque periods differed in the composers in early baroque favored homophonic texture
The _________ is the person who beats time, indicates expression, cues in musicians, and controls the balance among instruments and voices. conductor
Instrumental music became as important as vocal music for the first time in the ___________ period. late baroque
The Concerto Grosso is based on the baroque’s basic principle of the contrast between loud and soft
A section that sounds fairly complete and independent but is part of a larger composition is called a movement
The text, or book, of a musical dramatic work is called the libretto
One of the most revolutionary periods in music history was the early baroque
Castrati all of the above
Affections in baroque usage refers to emotional states or moods of music
__________ refers to a vocal line that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech. recitative
A collection of compositions that displays all the resources of fugue writing is Johann Sebastian Bach’s Art of the Fugue
Handel’s oratorios are usually based on the Old Testament
Although Handel wrote a great deal of instrumental music, the core of his huge output consists of English oratorios and Italian operas
The first and last movements of the concerto grosso are often in ________ form. ritornello
The position of the composer during the baroque period was that of a high-class servant with few personal rights
Baroque melodies often are elaborate and ornamental
Presenting the subject of a fugue going from right to left, or beginning with the last and proceeding backward to the first note, is called retrograde
The sonata in the baroque period was a composition in several movements for one to eight instruments
One of the most important composers of the early baroque, writing his last opera at the age of 75, was Claudio Monteverdi