Music Flashcards

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Composers in the twentieth century drew inspiration from….A) folk and popular music from all cultures B) European art music from the Middle Ages through the nineteenth century C) the music of Asia and Africa D) all of the above D) all of the above
The combination of two traditional chords sounding together is known as…. A) polytonality B) bitonality C) a tone cluster D) a polychord D) a polychord
Among the unusual playing techniques that are widely used during the twentieth century is the ____________, a rapid slide up or down a scale.A) buzzB) glissandoC) slip D) ostinato B) glissando
Which of the following composers was not stimulated by the folklore of his native land?A) Igor StravinskyB) Anton WebernC) Béla BartókD) Charles Ives B) Anton Webern
A chord made of tones only a half step or a whole step apart is known asA) polytonalityB) a polychordC) bitonalityD) a tone cluster D) a tone cluster
The absence of key or tonality in a musical composition is known asA) polytonalityB) ostinatoC) a tone clusterD) atonality D) atonality
To create fresh sounds, twentieth-century composers used….A) scales borrowed from nonwestern culturesB) scales they themselves inventedC) ancient church modesD) all of the above D) all of the above
The use of two or more keys at one time is known asA) polytonalityB) a tone clusterC) atonalityD) the twelve-tone system A) polytonality
A motive or phrase that is repeated persistently at the same pitch throughout a section is calledA) polytonalityB) glissandoC) ostinatoD) atonality C) ostinato
In twentieth-century musicA) string players are sometimes called on to use the wood instead of the hair on their bowsB) percussion instruments have become very prominent and numerousC) dissonance has been emancipatedD) all of the above D) all of the above
Radio broadcasts of live and recorded music began to reach large audiences during theA) 1900sB) 1920sC) 1940sD) 1960s B) 1920s
The first opera created for television was Gian-Carlo Menotti’sA) TurandotB) Amahl and the Night VisitorsC) Trouble in TahitiD) The Telephone B) Amahl and the Night Visitors
Recordings of much lesser-known music multiplied in 1948 throughA) the appearance of long-playing disksB) audience insistence for new worksC) government grantsD) demand created by radio stations A) the appearance of long-playing disks
The most influential organization sponsoring new music after World War I wasA) the New York Philharmonic OrchestraB) the National Broadcasting Company and its orchestraC) the International Society for Contemporary MusicD) the United Federation of Musicians C) the International Society for Contemporary Music
The best-known American ensemble created in the 1930s by a radio network to broadcast live music was theA) NBC Symphony OrchestraB) Lawrence Welk OrchestraC) New York Philharmonic OrchestraD) CBS Symphony Orchestra A) NBC Symphony Orchestra
One of the most important teachers of musical composition in the twentieth century wasA) Amy BeachB) Nadia BoulangerC) Sergei DiaghilevD) Igor Stravinsky B) Nadia Boulanger
Impressionism as a movement originated inA) FranceB) ItalyC) GermanyD) England A) France
Which of the following is not considered a symbolist poet?A) Stéphane MallarméB) Paul VerlaineC) Victor HugoD) Arthur Rimbaud C) Victor Hugo
When viewed closely, impressionist paintings are made up ofA) fine linesB) large bands of colorC) tiny black dotsD) tiny colored patches D) tiny colored patches
The impressionist painters were particularly obsessed with portrayingA) waterB) religious scenesC) scenes of ancient gloriesD) battle scenes A) water
Debussy’s most famous orchestral work was inspired by a poem byA) Stéphane MallarméB) Paul VerlaineC) Jean-Paul SartreD) Arthur Rimbaud A) Stéphane Mallarmé
Debussy’s music tends toA) sound free and almost improvisationalB) affirm the key very noticeablyC) have a strong rhythmic pulseD) use the full orchestra for massive effects A) sound free and almost improvisational
The faun evoked in Debussy’s famous composition is aA) baby deerB) creature who is half man, half goatC) beautiful young maidenD) sensitive musician B) creature who is half man, half goat
As a result of his summer sojourns away from France during his teens, Debussy developed a lifelong interest in the music ofA) ItalyB) HungaryC) EnglandD) Russia D) Russia
Debussy’s opera Pelléas et Mélisande is an almost word-for-word setting of the symbolist play byA) Paul VerlaineB) Arthur RimbaudC) Maurice MaeterlinckD) Stéphane Mallarmé C) Maurice Maeterlinck
At the Paris International Exhibition of 1889 Debussy was strongly influenced by theA) advantages of modern technologyB) performances of the music of J. S. BachC) Eiffel TowerD) performances of Asian music D) performances of Asian music
In which of the following areas did Debussy not create masterpieces?A) symphoniesB) art songsC) chamber musicD) piano music A) symphonies
The poem which inspired the Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun was written byA) Paul VerlaineB) Arthur RimbaudC) Maurice MaeterlinckD) Stéphane Mallarmé D) Stéphane Mallarmé
In order to drown the sense of tonality, DebussyA) turned to the medieval church modesB) borrowed pentatonic scales from Javanese musicC) developed the whole-tone scaleD) all of the above D) all of the above
Which of the following statements is NOT true of Ravel?A) He was a brilliant orchestrator.B) He composed a large number of works in all genres.C) He was a master craftsman.D) He had a taste for exotic musical idioms. B) He composed a large number of works in all genres.
Ravel’s Bolero originated as a(n)A) piano composition commissioned by Paul WittgensteinB) ballet commissioned by the dancer Ida RubinsteinC) entrance composition for the Prix de RomeD) student exercise in modulation and key relationships B) ballet commissioned by the dancer Ida Rubinstein
While some of Ravel’s music has the fluid, misty, atmospheric quality associated with impressionism, he does not fit neatly into any stylistic category because hisA) music is too clearly defined in form and tonalityB) melodies are more closely related to nineteenth-century French composersC) music is too classically balanced in phrase structureD) all of the above D) all of the above
Which of the following works is not by Maurice Ravel?A) La ValseB) Rhapsody espagnoleC) VoilesD) Daphnis et Chloé C) Voiles
Bolero reflects Ravel’s fascination withA) Spanish musicB) obsessive rhythmic repetitionC) tone colorD) all of the above D) all of the above
Favoring clear polyphonic textures, neoclassical composers wroteA) fuguesB) baroque dance suitesC) concerti grossiD) all of the above D) all of the above
Neoclassical compositions are characterized byA) forms and stylistic features of earlier periodsB) whole-tone scalesC) harsh dissonancesD) use of the twelve-tone system A) forms and stylistic features of earlier periods
Neoclassicism was a reaction againstA) romanticism and impressionismB) humanismC) classicismD) traditional forms A) romanticism and impressionism
Which of the following is not characteristic of neoclassicism?A) emotional restraintB) clarityC) misty atmosphereD) balance C) misty atmosphere
Neoclassical composers favoredA) tonalityB) atonalityC) program musicD) large orchestras A) tonality
A painter who went through a neoclassical phase, and who designed sets for Stravinsky’s first neoclassical work, wasA) Claude MonetB) Pablo PicassoC) Auguste RenoirD) Wassily Kandinsky B) Pablo Picasso
During the period from about 1920 to 1951, Stravinsky drew inspiration largely fromA) eighteenth-century musicB) Webern’s serial techniqueC) Russian folkloreD) African sculpture A) eighteenth-century music
Le Sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) is an example ofA) neoclassicismB) primitivismC) serialismD) romanticism B) primitivism
Sergei Diaghilev was the director of theA) Moscow ConservatoryB) Leningrad PhilharmonicC) Russian BalletD) Orchestre de Paris C) Russian Ballet
Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring is scored forA) a small chamber groupB) vocal soloists and orchestraC) an enormous orchestraD) a wind ensemble C) an enormous orchestra
Which of the following ballets is not from Stravinsky’s Russian period?A) The Rite of SpringB) The FirebirdC) PulcinellaD) Petrushka C) Pulcinella
Stravinsky’s composition teacher wasA) Sergei DiaghilevB) Modest MussorgskyC) Nikolai Rimsky-KorsakovD) Claude Debussy C) Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
Stravinsky’s second phase is generally known asA) neoclassicalB) primitiveC) serialD) postromantic A) neoclassical
In the 1950s Stravinsky dramatically changed his style, this time drawing inspiration fromA) Claude DebussyB) Richard WagnerC) Anton WebernD) Russian folk music C) Anton Webern
The famous riot in 1913 was caused by the first performance of Stravinsky’s balletA) PulcinellaB) The Fairy’s KissC) AgonD) The Rite of Spring D) The Rite of Spring
Stravinsky’s enormous influence on twentieth-century music is due to his innovations inA) rhythmB) harmonyC) tone colorD) all of the above D) all of the above
Expressionism is an art concerned withA) depicting the beauties of natureB) emotional restraint, clarity, and balanceC) social protestD) all of the above C) social protest
The expressionist movement flourished in the yearsA) 1890-1914B) 1905-1925C) 1914-1941D) 1920-1950 B) 1905-1925
The expressionist movement was largely centered inA) FranceB) Great BritainC) Germany and AustriaD) Russia C) Germany and Austria
Twentieth-century musical expressionism grew out of the emotional turbulence in the works of late romantics such asA) Richard WagnerB) Richard StraussC) Gustav MahlerD) all of the above D) all of the above
Expressionist music stressesA) harsh dissonanceB) fragmentationC) unusual instrumental effectsD) all of the above D) all of the above
Edvard Munch was an expressionistA) poetB) painterC) musicianD) playwright B) painter
The expressionists rejectedA) conventional prettinessB) realityC) imaginationD) morality A) conventional prettiness
Expressionism stressedA) subtle feelingB) intense, subjective emotionC) reticenceD) surface beauty B) intense, subjective emotion
Expressionist painters, writers, and composers used _________ to assault and shock their audience.A) pastel colorsB) deliberate distortionsC) clearly defined formsD) vague nature scenes B) deliberate distortions
Expressionist composersA) contributed many patriotic songs to the war effortB) avoided tonality and traditional chord progressionsC) tried to capture atmosphere with rich, sensuous harmonies and pleasant subjectsD) all of the above B) avoided tonality and traditional chord progressions
Schoenberg’s teacher wasA) Johannes BrahmsB) Richard WagnerC) Nikolai Rimsky-KorsakovD) Schoenberg himself D) Schoenberg himself
When Schoenberg arrived in the United States after the Nazis seized power in Germany, he obtained a teaching position atA) HarvardB) YaleC) UCLAD) Columbia C) UCLA
The text of A Survivor from WarsawA) was written by SchoenbergB) is partly based on a direct report of a survivor of the Warsaw ghettoC) is set to a kind of speech-singingD) all of the above D) all of the above
Alban Berg and Anton Webern were Schoenberg’sA) teachersB) studentsC) predecessorsD) jealous rivals B) students
In addition to being a composer, Schoenberg showed skill as aA) chemistB) painterC) music criticD) economist B) painter
A Survivor from Warsaw used three languages: English, German, andA) ItalianB) FrenchC) HebrewD) Russian C) Hebrew
Schoenberg developed an unusual style of vocal performance, halfway between speaking and singing, calledA) KlangfarbenmelodieB) SprechstimmeC) atonalityD) serialism B) Sprechstimme
Which of the following statements is not true of Schoenberg’s twelve-tone method of composition?A) The tones of a row may be presented at the same time to form chords.B) Each tone of a row must be placed in the same register.C) The tones of a row may be placed one after another to form a melody.D) A tone row may be shifted to any pitch level. B) Each tone of a row must be placed in the same register.
Which of the following terms is not used to describe the special ordering of the twelve chromatic tones in twelve-tone composition?A) polychordB) setC) tone rowD) series A) polychord
Georg Büchner’s play Wozzeck was written in theA) 1830sB) 1890sC) 1920sD) 1940s A) 1830s
The vocal lines in Wozzeck includeA) distorted folk songsB) speakingC) SprechstimmeD) all of the above D) all of the above
Which musical form provides the basis for the last act of Wozzeck?A) variationsB) military marchC) passacagliaD) lullaby A) variations
Which of the following statements regarding Berg is untrue?A) He composed a great quantity of music in all forms.B) He synthesized traditional and twentieth-century elements.C) Like Wagner, he created a continuous musical flow within each act of Wozzeck.D) He first attracted international attention with his opera Wozzeck. A) He composed a great quantity of music in all forms.
Webern’s melodic lines areA) atomized into two- or three-note fragmentsB) reinforced by frequent tutti unison passagesC) folklike, with narrow ranges and frequent repetitionsD) basically in major and minor keys A) atomized into two- or three-note fragments
Webern’s twelve-tone works contain many examples ofA) long singing melodiesB) melodic and harmonic repetitionC) strict polyphonic imitationD) homophonic texture C) strict polyphonic imitation
The least important element in Webern’s music isA) textureB) tone colorC) dynamic levelD) tonality D) tonality
Webern’s Five Pieces for Orchestra are scored forA) a chamber orchestra of eighteen soloistsB) solo voice, chorus, and orchestraC) the traditional large romantic orchestraD) mandolin, harmonium, and strings A) a chamber orchestra of eighteen soloists
WebernA) had little formal musical trainingB) taught himself piano and celloC) earned a doctorate in music history from the University of ViennaD) enjoyed frequent performances of his own music C) earned a doctorate in music history from the University of Vienna
Bartók’s principal performing medium wasA) conductingB) pianoC) violinD) flute B) piano
Bartók evolved a completely individual style that fused folk elements withA) changes of meter and a powerful beatB) twentieth-century soundsC) classical formsD) all of the above D) all of the above
The melodies Bartók used in most of his works areA) authentic folk melodies gathered in his researchB) original themes that have a folk flavorC) reminiscent of nineteenth-century symmetrical themesD) exclusively Hungarian and Rumanian folk tunes B) original themes that have a folk flavor
Bartók’s six string quartets are widely thought to be the finest since those ofA) Dmitri ShostakovichB) Ludwig van BeethovenC) Joseph HaydnD) Igor Stravinsky B) Ludwig van Beethoven
While remaining within the framework of a tonal center, Bartók often used _______________ in his music.A) harsh dissonancesB) polychordsC) tone clustersD) all of the above D) all of the above
Bartók’s Concerto for OrchestraA) is his most popular workB) received its title because it was written for an orchestra of virtuosiC) is romantic in spirit because of its emotional intensity and memorable themesD) all of the above D) all of the above
As a Soviet composer, Shostakovich was required toA) follow the dictates of the Communist PartyB) write music that was accessible and melodicC) reject modernismD) all of the above D) all of the above
Shostakovich is best known as a composer ofA) symphonic worksB) an enormous quantity of music in almost every genreC) songs and piano worksD) chamber music A) symphonic works
Shostakovich’s Fifth SymphonyA) is one of the composer’s least known worksB) portrays violence and sexually explicit material in musical formC) is accessible in style and allowed the composer to regain official favor with the Communist partyD) is dissonant and “modernistic” C) is accessible in style and allowed the composer to regain official favor with the Communist party
Shostakovich’s opera Lady MacBeth of the Mtsensk DistrictA) established the composer as a major figure in twentieth-century musicB) caused the composer to be expelled from the Soviet UnionC) met with unanimous approval from Stalin and the Communist PartyD) followed the Communist Party’s dictates of an accessible musical style A) established the composer as a major figure in twentieth-century music
Babi Yar, a poem by the Russian poet Yevgeny Yevtushenko about Jews massacred by the Nazis in Kiev,A) was used by Shostakovich as a text of the opening movement of his Thirteenth SymphonyB) was applauded and embraced by the communist authoritiesC) was spurned by Shostakovich as a text for his Thirteenth Symphony because it would be rejected by the Communist authoritiesD) was used for the Communist Party’s official anthem A) was used by Shostakovich as a text of the opening movement of his Thirteenth Symphony
Shostakovich’s Fifth Symphony has been described asA) “a blatant example of all that is wrong with twentieth-century music”B) “a sinister combination of evil intent and discordant harmonies”C) “a ridiculous parody of eighteenth-century form”D) “a Soviety artist’s practical creative response to just criticism” D) “a Soviety artist’s practical creative response to just criticism”
Putnam’s Camp, Redding, Connecticut, is a child’s impression ofA) a summer at campB) a Fourth of July picnicC) a fishing tripD) army life in the war B) a Fourth of July picnic
Charles Ives’s father was a(n)A) insurance salesmanB) physicianC) professional athleteD) bandmaster D) bandmaster
After graduating from Yale, IvesA) went into the insurance businessB) began teachingC) began playing the trumpet professionallyD) went into professional athletics A) went into the insurance business
During most of his lifetime, Ives’s musical compositionsA) were enthusiastically received in public performancesB) were quickly published by a major firmC) accumulated in the barn of his Connecticut farmD) were sought after by musicians eager to perform them in public C) accumulated in the barn of his Connecticut farm
Ives’s music contains elements ofA) revival hymns and ragtimeB) patriotic songs and barn dancesC) village bands and church choirsD) all of the above D) all of the above
Putnam’s Camp, Redding, Connecticut, illustrates Ives’s technique of quoting snatches of familiar tunes by presenting fragments ofA) Yankee DoodleB) The British GrenadiersC) both a and bD) neither a nor b C) both a and b
Ives’s large and varied output includes works in many genres, but notA) symphoniesB) operasC) songsD) chamber music B) operas
Putnam’s Camp, Redding, Connecticut, is a movement from Ives’sA) Three Places in New EnglandB) Essays before a SonataC) Concord SonataD) The Unanswered Question A) Three Places in New England
Gershwin left high school at the age of fifteen toA) become a pianist demonstrating new songs in a publisher’s salesroomB) study theory and composition in ParisC) work in his father’s storeD) develop his athletic talents A) become a pianist demonstrating new songs in a publisher’s salesroom
The Gershwin song that became a tremendous hit in 1920 wasA) La, La, LucilleB) I Got RhythmC) SwaneeD) Embraceable You C) Swanee
Porgy and Bess is a(n)A) Broadway musicalB) operaC) rhapsody for pianoD) popular song B) opera
In addition to his musical skills, George Gershwin showed talent as aA) lyricistB) clarinetistC) sculptorD) painter D) painter
George Gershwin usually collaborated with the lyricistA) Jerome KernB) Irving BerlinC) Paul WhitemanD) Ira Gershwin D) Ira Gershwin
Which of the following works is not by George Gershwin?A) Of Thee I SingB) Porgy and BessC) The Desert SongD) An American in Paris C) The Desert Song
Rhapsody in Blue opens withA) a solo fluteB) the full orchestraC) a muted trumpetD) a solo clarinet D) a solo clarinet
“Harlem Renaissance” was the nameA) sometimes given to a flowering of African American culture during the years 1917-1935B) given to a housing project in New York City’s HarlemC) of a city in HollandD) of a symphony by William Grant Still A) sometimes given to a flowering of African American culture during the years 1917-1935
William Grant Still’s opera dealing with the Haitian slave rebellion isA) Trouble in TahitiB) Troubled IslandC) Emperor JonesD) Once on this Island B) Troubled Island
As a result of his studies in composition with composers from two opposing musical camps, the conservative George Whitefield Chadwick and the modernist Edgard Varèse, StillA) composed in a very conservative styleB) composed in a highly dissonant style.C) composed in a mixture of conservative and avant-garde stylesD) turned away from avant-garde styles and wrote compositions with a uniquely African American flavor. D) turned away from avant-garde styles and wrote compositions with a uniquely African American flavor.
Each movement of William Grant Still’s Afro-American Symphony is prefaced by lines from a poem byA) Paul Laurence DunbarB) Zora Neale HurstonC) W. E. B. DuBoisD) James Weldon Johnson A) Paul Laurence Dunbar
William Grant Still’s works in African American style, such as his Afro-American Symphony, wereA) never performed during his lifetimeB) severely criticized by audiences and criticsC) panned by critics, but popular with audiencesD) performed to critical acclaim in New York D) performed to critical acclaim in New York
After serving in the navy and a brief return to studies at Oberlin College, William Grant Still moved to New York where heA) made band arrangements and played in the orchestras of all-black musical showsB) practiced medicineC) served as a navy recruiterD) composed full time to satisfy his many commissions A) made band arrangements and played in the orchestras of all-black musical shows
Copland’s name has become synonymous with American music because of his use ofA) revival hymns, cowboy songs, and other folk tunesB) jazz, blues, and ragtime elementsC) subjects from American folkloreD) all of the above D) all of the above
Copland’s turn toward simplicity in the 1930s can be traced in part toA) the great depressionB) dissatisfaction with his own styleC) the influence of SchoenbergD) the influence of religion A) the great depression
In 1921 Copland began a three-year period of study inA) GermanyB) AustriaC) ItalyD) France D) France
Which of the following works was not composed by Copland?A) Concord SonataB) RodeoC) Billy the KidD) Music for the Theater A) Concord Sonata
In addition to his compositions, Copland made valuable contributions to music in America byA) directing composer’s groupsB) writing books and magazine articlesC) organizing concerts of American musicD) all of the above D) all of the above
In 1925, and for a few years afterward, Copland’s music showed the influence ofA) impressionismB) jazzC) neobaroque stylesD) expressionism B) jazz
An example of Copland’s use of serialist technique isA) Music for the TheaterB) Connotations for OrchestraC) Fanfare for the Common ManD) Appalachian Spring B) Connotations for Orchestra
Appalachian Spring originated as aA) program symphonyB) song cycleC) ballet scoreD) chamber opera C) ballet score
Copland depicted Scenes of daily activity for the Bride and her Farmer-husband in Appalachian Spring throughA) five variations on the Shaker melody Simple GiftsB) intensely dissonant passages and humorous offbeat accentsC) strings softly singing a hymnlike melodyD) a joyful dance tune that is American in flavor A) five variations on the Shaker melody Simple Gifts
Minimalist music is characterized byA) the development of musical materials through random methodsB) rapidly changing dynamics and texturesC) a steady pulse, clear tonality, and insistent repetition of short melodic patternsD) the use of twelve-tone techniques to organize the dimensions of music C) a steady pulse, clear tonality, and insistent repetition of short melodic patterns
Many composers since the mid-1960s have made extensive use of quotations from earlier music as an attempt toA) simplify writing original compositionsB) improve communication between the composer and the listenerC) capitalize on the popularity of earlier worksD) continue and develop serialist techniques B) improve communication between the composer and the listener
A major composer associated with the serialist movement isA) Philip GlassB) Milton BabbittC) George CrumbD) Ellen Taaffe Zwilich B) Milton Babbitt
All of the following are major developments in music since 1950 except theA) spread of chance musicB) increased use of the twelve-tone systemC) continued composition of symphonies in the classical styleD) composition in which timbre, texture, dynamics, and rhythm are as important as pitch C) continued composition of symphonies in the classical style
Intervals smaller than the half step are calledA) quartertonesB) tone clustersC) macrotonesD) microtones D) microtones
Twelve-tone compositional techniques used to organize rhythm, dynamics, tone color, and other dimensions of music to produce totally controlled and organized music are calledA) chance musicB) minimalismC) serialismD) Klangfarbenmelodie C) serialism
In chance or aleatoric music, the composerA) writes a rhythmic pattern but leaves it to the performer to determine the actual pitchesB) takes a chance on which performers will perform the workC) chooses pitches, tone colors, and rhythms by random methodsD) writes the music in a traditional manner, but allows the recording engineer to make changes C) chooses pitches, tone colors, and rhythms by random methods
The polyrhythms in Steve Reich’s Sextet result from the influence of hisA) studies at Cornell UniversityB) participation in marching bandsC) studies of African musicD) early childhood family environment C) studies of African music
Ellen Taaffe Zwilich won the 1983 Pulitzer Prize for Music for her compositionA) String QuartetB) Double Quartet for StringsC) Symphony No. 1D) Concerto for Piano and Orchestra C) Symphony No. 1
Jonathan Harvey’s Ritual MelodiesA) is based on melodies that contain long sustained tones and rapid decorative figuresB) evokes the atmosphere of a far eastern religious ceremonyC) contains computer simulations of a Tibetan temple bell and other eastern instrumentsD) all of the above D) all of the above
Steve Reich’s Sextet is written forA) six percussionists playing many instrumentsB) four percussionists and two keyboard playersC) two violins, two violas, and two cellosD) woodwind quintet and piano B) four percussionists and two keyboard players
Ellen Taaffe Zwilich’s Concerto Grosso 1985 is an example ofA) total serialismB) quotation musicC) minimalismD) chance music B) quotation music
A gamelan isA) a Japanese koto ensembleB) an Indonesian orchestra of bronze gongs, chimes, and xylophonesC) an African percussion ensembleD) an Indian plucked string instrument B) an Indonesian orchestra of bronze gongs, chimes, and xylophones
The computer music in Jonathan Harvey’s Ritual MelodiesA) was composed on a keyboard and then transferred to computerB) was generated and manipulated by computerC) was prepared on a computer and then printed as sheet music for the performers’ useD) uses electronically modified real life sounds B) was generated and manipulated by computer

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