Which of the following is not a normal classification of male voice ranges? contralto
A smooth, connected style of playing a melody is known as legato
When notating music for others to read, composers traditionally have used ____________ words to indicate dynamics. Italian
A combination of tones that is considered unstable and tense is called a dissonance
Register refers to part of an instrument’s total range
The technique of combining several melodic lines into a meaningful whole is called counterpoint
A series of chords is called a(n) progression
Tonality is another term for key
Staccato refers to playing or singing a melody in a short detached manner.
Changes in musical style from one historical period to the next are usually continuous
The quality of the music produced in a modern electronic music studio is dependent on the imagination and organizing power of the human mind
Modulation refers to a shift from one key to another within the same composition
Register refers to part of an instrument’s total range
the organization of musical ideas in time is called Form
In a musical time signature, the upper number tells how many beats fall in a measure.
A chord is a combination of three or more tones sounded at once
It is more difficult to sing than to speak because a. All answers are correctb. wider ranges of pitch and volume are used in singing than in speaking.c. singing demands a greater supply of air and control of breath.d. vowel sounds are held longer in singing than in speaking.All answers are correct.
The word chromatic comes from the Greek word chroma, color, and is used in music to refer to the twelve tones of the octave.
If a flute player were to play a solo without any other accompaniment, the texture would be monophonic.
The relative highness or lowness of a sound is called pitch
The dominant chord is the triad built on the _________ step of the scale. fifth
Retaining some features of a musical idea while changing others is called variation.
A gradual decrease in loudness is known as a ___________. diminuendo
While professional singers can command a pitch range of two octaves or more, an untrained voice is usually limited to about an octave and a half.
Sharp or flat signs immediately following the clef sign at the beginning of the staff of a musical composition are called the key signature.
_____________ is defined as putting an accent in music where it would not normally be expected. Syncopation
When some features of a musical idea are changed, but others are retained, the technique is referred to as variation.
Synthesizers a. can usually be played by means of a keyboard.b. Allow the composer complete control over pitch, tone color, dynamics, and duration.c. All answers are correctd. can generate a huge variety of musical sounds and noises.All answers are correct
The loudness of a sound is related to the _________ of the vibration that produces the sound. amplitude
Traditionally, a composition would almost always end on a tonic chord.
A melody that serves as the starting point for a more extended piece of music is called a theme.
In music, a sound that has a definite pitch is called a tone.
A dynamic accent occurs in music when a performer emphasizes a tone by playing it more loudly than the tones around it.
The pitch of a sound is decided by the _____________ of its vibrations. frequency
A gradual increase in loudness is known as a crescendo.
The range of a singer’s voice depends on training and physical makeup.
A cadence is a resting place at the end of a phrase.
When two different tones blend so well when sounded together that they almost seem to merge into one tone, the interval is called a(n) octave.
Sequence may be defined as the repetition of a melodic pattern at a higher or lower pitch.
The distance between the lowest and highest tones a voice or instrument can produce is called pitch range.
By adding a dot to the right of a note we increase its duration by half.
The distance in pitch between any two tones is called an interval.
The saxophone is a single reed woodwind instrument
Homophonic texture consists of one main melody accompanied by chords.
Black American culture contributed to the evolving musical theater with which of the following? the creole show
Tin Pan Alley received its name for: the cacophony of tinkling pianos sounded like tin pans in the alleyway
While the minstrel shows are clearly racist, they also included themes of: Common ground between black and lower-class whites
What theater format carried over from a traditional European legacy? Operetta
What famous Gershwin work has by some been upgraded to the status of opera, rather than musical? porgy and bess
Who of the following would not be considered a modern composer of musicals? tony pastor
Why was sheet music such a popular/important medium in the later half of the 1800’s? It was the only medium (via amateur piano performance) that popular songs could be marketed to American homes
About when did the phonograph player come down in price and was a viable technology for the average American? 1908??
What Tin Pan Alley composer was able to withstand the rise of conservatory trained composers on sheer talent despite his own lack of musical education? irving berlin
What revolutionary style of theater is Jerome Kern associated with? princess theater musicals
What historic film introduced sound and ended the era of silent film? the jazz singer
With the development of electronic recording technology, what style of singing came into fashion and who exemplified that style? crooners bing carobs
What famous work by Leonard Bernstein is based on Romeo and Juliet by Shakespere? west side story
Concerning minstrel shows and its presentation of class issues, what modern musical genre does the author make a connection with?, Punk Rock
What two venues helped expand the American song and entertainment industry in the beginning of the twentieth-century? ballroom and cabaret
What was the format that converted minstrel shows into more family oriented material by saloon owner Tony Pastor in 1881? vaudeville
What songs became popular in eighteenth-century England and eventually were imported to the New World via sheet music? parlor music
What lyricist worked with Richard Rogers after his collaboration with Lorenz Hart? oscar hammestein II
While minstrel shows focused on racial and class issues, what was another element of the show? lampooning legitimate theater
With the push to market minstrelsy to upper-class patronage by the 1840’s, how did racism become the primary theme?, Class issues became nonexistent, leaving only racism as a theme
What was the organization created by the publishing firms of Tin Pan Alley to enforce royalty payments for publishers and composers? ASCAP
Who was the composer that brought American musical theater to its peak and also was a mentor to Irving Berlin george M cohan
Who were the traveling courtly singer/songwriters of France in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries? troubadour
Why did American sheet music production center around the theater district in New York City? The theaters required an abundance of songs for the vaudeville shows
What was revolutionary about Jerome Kern’s Showboat in 1927? It is the first example of serious drama in American musicals and is based on a literary work
What performance/entertainment medium became popular in the 1880’s and featured a rotating cast of performers? vaudeville
Who were the traveling courtly singer/songwriters of Germany in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries? minnesinger
Who of the following would not be considered a “new crooner” marc anthony
What was the first significant format to commercialize on African-American music and culture? minstrel show
Who was the greatest American song composer of the nineteenth-century? stephen foster
What is call-and-response? A musical device where a short idea is stated and another instrument or voice responds, creating musical dialogue
What is a typical element of African music? In Africa music is linked to the activities of the entire community. AND Many times music is not based on its aural merits but rather the effectiveness of achieving its goal.
Bessie Smith apart from other early black female recorded blues singers?, She grew up in the south, closer than many of the singers of her day who were from the northeast
What is syncopation?, An emphasis on notes that do not align with the pulse of the music
What was W.C. Handy known for?, A composer who wrote a few of the first notable published blues songs, including “Memphis Blues”
Why is recording technology so important for improvised music? Recording technology creates a permanent record of something that is temporal in nature, and otherwise impossible to recreate and study
What change occurred with blues in the 1960’s and is considered a “blues revival”?, The audience for blues grew to include white audiences, as well as spread globally and saw a surge of popularity particularly in the UK
T/F When slaves were imported to the southern United States African culture was mostly encouraged and maintained. False
What scale has been the foundation of the majority of Western music?, Major scale
What other southeastern city was a focal point for recording blues?, Atlanta, Georgia
What artists would not be considered characteristic of the Chicago blues sound?, Lonnie Johnson
Who is considered the “father of the Delta blues?”, Charley Patton
Which of the following players would not be considered modern blues guitarist? Huddie Leadbetter
What was the first city southern blacks migrated to when leaving rural areas and hence became a blues hotbed? Harlem
What style of dance created a craze in the 1890s and predated ragtime? Cakewalk
What is the guitar technique that uses a hard object to create a sliding pitch and timbre? Bottleneck Slide
In African musical aesthetics, “dirtying” the sound refers to Coloring the tone with bends growls rasps and other articulations
What blues singer rivaled the Delta Blues singers and was based out of, Dallas, Texas? Blind Lemon Jefferson
Which of the following proteges of Charley Patton become one of the most famous and influential Delta bluesman? Robert Johnson
As blues moved into Chicago’s South Side, what style of blues developed? Hokem Blues
Which of the following is not a reason for the significance of Mamie Smith’s recording of “Crazy Blues” in 1920? It was the first recording of a blues song by an African-American composer
What was not a contribution to the popularity of piano ragtime? The phonograph player
What is significant about the World’s Columbian Exposition in 1893? Pianists who had been performing ragtime were brought to Chicago and exposed to this new style to mass education.
Scott Joplin is considered the creative pinnacle of what musical style Ragtime
Blue Notes are notes altered to sound liek traditional african notes
What instrument(s) were introduced to alter blues and create a unique Chicago sound? Harmonica and Electric Guitar
True or False: Historically, improvisation is a practice exclusive to African-American music False
True of False: The fixed structure of three even four-bar sections of the blues was standard long before the blues form was ever used in print False
What is motor rhythm? A steady rhythmic pulse used in music to facilitate body movement and dancing
What is a swing rhythm? A subdivision of the beat by 3 instead of 2.
True or False: With Louis Armstrong, the focus of the improvised solo shifted from a single soloist to a collective improvisation including all members of the band False
Why is it reasonable to describe Bix Beiderbecke as a modernist in jazz? His compositional style pulled ideas from modern impressionist composers such as Claude Debussy
What phenomenon surrounding the marching bands of New Orleans became a musical institution for early jazzmen? Second Line
Of the following, which bandleaders did not lead a band during the swing craze? Gordon Goodwin
What city is considered the birthplace of jazz by some scholars? New Orleans
Which of the following factors did not lead to the demise of the Swing Era The Great Depression
What bandleader introduced swing as a popular genre for mainstream American music, also known as the “King of Swing”? Benny Goodman
What musical function did the black social clubs fill in New Orleans?,Provided music for the funeral marches. Provided music for other occasions such as dances, citywide parades, and Mardi Gras
What was unique about Duke Ellington’s arranging style? He voiced across sections and created new timbres by combining different instruments
Why was the red-light district in New Orleans given the name “Storyville?” After the Alderman Sidney Story who was the author of the legislation to legalize prostitution in the district
Which of the following would not describe Jelly Roll Morton’s style? The overall texture, instrumentation and themes remained static
When a marching band was stripped down for a smaller event, what was the typical instrumentation? One clarinet, one cornet, one trombone, a banjo or piano, and a drummer
What was arguably the most successful group made up of white musicians copying the music of blacks during the early 1900’s Original Dixieland Jass Band
Who was the founder of the band the Red Hot Peppers? Jelly Roll Morton
Which of the following was not a unique characteristic of Louis Armstrong’s playing? Preferred a darker timbre and played the cornet to achieve this sound
Who wrote most of the arrangements for the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra? Don Redman
True or False: Kansas city riff charts were base on complex arrangements written by trained composers and arrangers False
Which of the following was not an influence in the early open-minded attitudes and cultural tolerance of the New Orleans? English Colonists
Bix Beiderbecke is known for creating what style in jazz? Cool School
What is the term ther refers to horns players playing the same chord rhythmically rather than independent polyphonic lines? Block Writing
Of the following, which New York band was significant during the early period of the big band? Fletcher Henderson Orchestra
Of the following, which is not significant about the Louisiana Legislative Code passed in 1877? Creoles were given equal status as white citizens
How does Bix Beiderbecke’s playing differ from Louis Armstrong? Beiderbecke preferred the mellow sound of the cornet and his solos were more introspective
Jelly Roll Morton got his start where? South-Side of Chicago
What is the reasoning behind using saxophones in a big band? They have a similar timbre to string instruments
Traditional marches have three components: the melody played by the cornets, a fluttering counter melody by the high woodwinds, and the: Embellished bass line by the trombones
Where did Joe “King” Oliver form his Creole Jazz Band? Chicago, Illinois
styles emerged in popularity to pave the way for the growth of jazz? Ragtime and Blues
The era of music from 1935-1945 that included large bands and complicated dance numbers is typically known as: Swing Era
Who was the most prominent proponent of the Kansas City swing style? Count Basie
As Thornhill’s band was the big band sound on the east coast, who’s big band was catalytic on the west coast during this period? Stan Kenton
Of the following, what did not push bebop to the road of high art? The introduction of electronic instruments
What fusion ensemble did Davis album John McLaughlin put together in the 1970’s? Mahavishnu Orchestra
Which album inspired the albums Miles Ahead, Porgy and Bess, and Sketches of Spain? Birth of the Cool
Of the following, who was an arranger who worked with Claude Thornhill? Gerry Mulligan
What area of New York was the hot bed for bebop musicians? 52nd Street
Of the following, who was not an early pioneer of bebop? Dave Brubek
What demographic did jazz become popular with in the 1950’s? College-aged young
Considered by some as marginally jazz, what artist made a huge effort to book college campuses in the 1950’s? Dave Brubeck
What instrumentalist is arguable at the ground floor as far as smooth jazz in concerned? Davis Sanborn
What saxophonist is most associated with Bossa Nova? Stan Getz
During the late 1950’s and 1960’s, what approach did John Coltrane take to jazz? World Music and Free Jazz
Who of the following would not be classified strictly under latin jazz? Wynton Marsalis
Who of the following arrangers had a longstanding relationship with Miles Davis? Gil Evans
Where did the jazz substyle Bossa Nova originate? Brazil
Of the following artists, who would not be classified in the free jazz camp? Terence Blanchard
What was the style that grew as an alternative to bebop? Cool Jazz
What is the primary source from which bebop drew its repertoire? Tin pan alley
Who was the saxophonist who complemented Brubeck’s playing? Paul Desmond
Who was the piano player that worked with Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers? Horace Silver
The Jazz Messengers were known for what style? Funky Jazz
Fusion was a style that sought to fuse jazz with: Rock Music
What Brazilian composer rose to fame with compositions such as “Girl from Ipanema” and “Desafinado?” Antonio Carlos Jobim
Of the following, who was not involved with Miles Davis’s second great quintet of the 1960’s? John Coltrane
What style of jazz developed after the Swing Era that focused on small ensembles, high energy and virtuosic players? Bebop
Of the following groups, which would not be considered a Jazz-Rock crossover? Yes
True or False: Dave Brubeck’s style was lighthearted and utilized traditional time signatures such as 4/4. False
True or False: Cool Jazz was played only on the West Coast False
What Miles Davis album is seen as the culmination of jazz fusion released in 1969? In a Silent Way
What tuxedo clad New York ensemble did pianist John Lewis put together that incorporated classical music in formal concert settings? The Modern Jazz Quartet
How did country music adapt as the South became more urbanized through the 1920’s? Grew to include the blue-collar working class as well as the rural dwellers
Who was the most legendary artist to come out of the Roy Acuff/Fred Rose partnership? Hank Williams
What Nashville cable network station was created as a southern response to MTV and grew to also include talk shows,fishing and racing coverage, as well as western TV show reruns and movies?, TNN
Of the following which was not a response of the lower-class whites to their inferiority complex in the class structure of the South? Opium use
What region did Jimmie Rodgers originate from? Railroad lines in Mississippi
What southern city spawned a counter-country-culture atmosphere much like San Francisco in the 1970’s and spawned artists such as Waylon Jennings and Willie Nelson? Austin, Texas
What was Ralph Peer’s contribution to commercial country music? He conducted recording expeditions to the South and produced the first commercial country music records
Who wrote most of the composition sand by Hank Williams? Hank Williams
With the longevity of music what city has been deemed, “Music City, USA?” Nashville, Tennesee
Of the following who would not represent the liberated female country artist? Sara carter
True or False: Phonographs were the primary medium by which country music was spread False
How did border radio stations influence the spread of country music and artists? They were located just south of the US border in Mexico, and with large wattage outputs, were able to broadcast all the way to Canada, spreading country music across the United States
What city in California is known for a honky tonk style that is a little louder and rivaled Nashville as a country epicenter through the 1950’s, 60’s, and 70’s? Bakersfield
What female country artist embraced her upbringing to represent a party girl image? Gretchen Wilson
What record label helped launch the recording industry in Nashville? Decca
What area of the country did Ralph Peer find the Carter Family? Western Kentucky
Who was the announcer who created the folk ideal of the Grand Ole Opry and made it into significance that it is today? George D. Hay
Who was Vernon Dalhart? He was in a Tin Pan Alley recording artist who was very successful at cashing in on the country music market
What is significant about the image that Gene Autry portrayed on and off the screen? His cowboy image went far beyond the screen and he was the American role model Embodying virility, triumph in battle, integrity and wholesomeness
What is the fundamental contradiction that lies at the heart of country attitudes and music? Conflict of religious attitudes and contradictory behavior
As the Grand Ole Opry grew in size and audience who was the single act that ensured this success? Roy Acuff
Of the following, which does not reflect the topics of country western song lyrics and attitudes? Entrepreneurism
Who arguable embodies the most successful crossover formula from country to pop? Chet Atkins
Of the following instruments which was not an instrument used in early country music around the turn of the century? Trumpet
Bob Wills and Milton Brown are associated with what style? Western Swing
When did country music reach the level that it could have its own Billboard category and not be classified under “race” records? 1940’s
Aside from the Grand Ole Opry, what was the other radio show based out of Chicago that had success?, National Barn Dance
Why was the electric guitar such an influential instrument in honky tonk? Because of the load dancing and raucous behavior, the electric guitar was necessary in order to be heard by the audience
Who became known as “America’s Blue Yodeler” Jimmie Rodgers
licensing organization acquired the “The Tennessee Waltz” and became a formidable alternative to ASCAP? Broadcast Music Incorporated (BMI)
Who is the most influential artist regarding the jump blues? Louis Jordon
What was the style of blues piano playing that greatly influenced early rock and roll? Boogie-Woogie
Piano player Jerry Lee Lewis most closely played what early style of rock and roll? Memphis Rockabilly
What Los Angeles doo-wop group is one of the most successful concerning serious ballads and subject material? The Platters
What film and soundtrack brought a revival of bluegrass to mainstream audiences and swept the 2001 Country Music Awards? O, Brother Where Art Thou
What important record label was Johnny Cash, as well as Elvis Presley and Jerry Lee Lewis, signed to? Sun
Who is the banjo player for the jass-bluegrass group, Strength in Numbers, which also included virtuosos such as Edgar Meyer, Jerry Douglas, and Mark O’Connor? Bela Fleck
How do the instrumentalists execute a strong backbeat in bluegrass music? A strum of the muted strings giving a “chop” sound to accent the backbeat
What was the name for Bela Fleck’s band that included virtuoso electric bassist Victor Wooten? Flecktones
What was the name of Buddy Holly’s band? The Crickets
What is the term to describe the new generation of bluegrass players from the 1960’s who experimented with the style both in instrumentation and composition? Newgrass
While the Dixie Chicks took a strong stance against the post September 11 war with Iraq, who best represented the tradition of “God and country” in country Toby Keith
What Los Angeles doo-wop group focused more on light-hearted material and found success in novelty numbers? The Coasters
What artist/song is considered the first success of doo-wop in a rock and roll setting? The Chords – “Sh-Boom”
Sun Records, founded by Sam Phillips, recorded primarily what style of early rock and roll? Memphis Rockabilly
Which of the following artist is responsible for preserving a strong honky-tonk tradition in his music? Alan Jackson
Who was the first billionaire in country music and the most successful crossover pop-country artist? Garth Brooks
In a vocal doo-wop group, what voice typically would sing the melody? Tenor
Who clearly represented the northern band development of rock and roll and imitated the jump blues style for white audiences? Bill Haley
Who is considered the voice for new fiddler players, including composing a concerto for symphonic orchestra with himself as the soloist? Mark O’ Connor
What artist is most closely related to Elvis Presley concerning early rock and roll? Carl Perkins
What San Diego Based group of young bluegrass musicians have brought a new energy and fresh composition to the bluegrass style in the new millennium? Nickelcreek
Which of the following were not part of the rise of female country stars during the 1990’s? Patsy Cline
What recording technique did Buddy Holly make legendary? Overdubbing
Who is considered the “father of bluegrass?” Bill Monroe
What instrument did Flatt and Scruggs add to their ensemble and led to the instruments popularization? Dobro
What record label sought to capitalize on the style of Chicago rhythm and blues? Chess
What band had an early hit by covering Buddy Holly’s “Not Fade Away?” The Rolling Stones
What were the characteristics that set bluegrass apart from the string bands that predated the style? Faster tempos and demanding technical facility
Who is representative of the New Orleans Dance Blues vein of early rock and roll? Fats Domino