The Middle Ages refer to the period of European history spanning… 450-1450AD
Renaissance may be described as an age of.. a. Curiosity and individualismb. Exploration and adventurec. The “rebirth” of human creativity
In the Middle Ages, most important musicians were Priest
A virtual monopoly on learning during the middle ages was held by Monks in monasteries
During the middle ages______ was the center of musical life the church
The church frowns on instruments because of their earlier role in pagan rituals
The use of organs in church… bothered the clergy bc they distracted the listener from worship
what we know about instruments from the middle ages and renaissance comes from pictures and literary descriptions of the day
most medieval music was vocal
we know from paintings and literary descriptions of the middle ages that instruments were used
During the late middle ages, the church believed that music during religious services should be used only as discrete accompaniment
Music the medieval monks sang was called gregorian chant
monophonic texture gregorian chant
consists of melody sung without accompaniment gregorian chant
Gregorian chant named after Pope Gregory I who… was credited by medieval legend with having created it
the 2 types of services at which monks and nuns sang were office, mass
Gregorian chant… a. Used Latin text.b. Retained some elements of the Jewish synagogue of the first centuries after Christ.c. Was the official music of the Roman Catholic Church for more than 1,000 years.d. Conveys a calm, otherworldly quality.e. Its rhythm is flexible, without meter.f. The melodies tend to move by step within a narrow range of pitches.g. Is very difficult to sing, and those who know how are dying out. h. The Second Vatican Council of 1962-65 decreed the use of the vernacular in church services.i. It is too old-fashioned for modern services.
earliest surviving chant manuscripts date from about the ______ century 9th
basic scales of western music during the middle ages church modes
major and minor scales in that they consist of 7 different tones church modes
the for of the chant Allelua: Vidimus stellam is ABA
first woman composer to leave a large number of worksthat have survived, abbess of the convent at Rupertsberg, and a visionary and mystic active in religious anddiplomatic affairs. Hildegard of Bingen
The earliest extant liturgical morality play, Ordo virtutum (Play of the Virtues), was composed by Hildegard of Bungen
The first large body of secular songs that survives in decipherable notation was composed during the ____ centures 12th-13th
The first large body of secular songs that survives in decipherable notation was composed by French nobles called troubadours and trouveres
the French secular songs of the Middle Ages were often concerned with the Crusades, dancing, and love
notation of troubadour and trouvere melodies does not indicate rhythm
27. The wandering minstrels, or jongleurs, of the Middle Ages performed music and acrobatics in castles, taverns, and town squares, lived on the lowest level of society, and played instrumental dances on harps, fiddles, and lutes.
one function of _______ music in the late Middle Ages was to provide accompaniment for dancing secular
an estampie is medical dance
int medical estample is one of the earliest surviving pieces of _______ the manuscript contains only _________ and does not indicate which __________ should play the melody instrumental music; single melodic line; instrument
the first steps in a revolution that eventually transformed western music began sometime between 700 and 900with the addition of a ______________________________________ to Gregorian chant. second melodic line
medical music that consists of Gregorian chant and one or more additional melodic lines is called organum
was the intellectual and artistic capitol of Europe during the late medieval period Paris
was among the first known composers to write music with more that 2 voices Perotin
The center of Polyphonic music in Europe after 1150 was Paris
in medical times, the most polyphonic music was created by placing new melodic lines against known chants
notable because they are the first important composers, indicated definite time values and a clearly defined meter in their music, and were the leadersof the school of Notre Dame. Leonin and Perotin
The earliest known composers to write music with measure rhythm were Leonin and Perotin
one of the major characteristics of ars nova music is its use of syncopation
the term ars nova refers to French and Italian music of the 14 century
mong other causes, ___________________ music became more important than ___________________ music in the fourteenth century because the literature of the time stressed earthly sensuality, rival popes claimed authority at the same time, thereby weakening the authority of the church, and the feudal system had gone into decline. Secular; sacred
A new system of music notation that allowed composers to specify almost any rhythmical pattern had evolved by the ___________________. early 14th century
the ars nova or new art differed from older music in that ________ permitted composers to specifically almost any ________ patern new system of notation; rhythmic
and outstanding composer of the ______ was Guillaume de Machaut ars nova
Guillaume de Machaut’s compostions consisted mainly of …… love songs with instrumental accompaniment
5 parts of the mass ordinary are: KyrieGloriaCredoSanctusAgnus Dei
Renaissance music occurred between 14450-1600
many prominent renaissance composers, who held important posts all over Europe, came from what was then Flanders
Leading music center in 16th century was italy
the Texture of Renaissance music is chiefly Polyphonic
Renaissance music sounds fuller than medieval music because composers considered the harmonic effect ofchords rather than superimposing one melody above another, the bass register is used for the first time, and thetypical choral piece has four, five, or six voice parts of nearly equal melodic interest.
A cappella refers to Unaccompanied choral music
Renaissance ______ are usually easy to sing because the ______ often moves along a scale with few large leaps melodies, melody
the 2 main forms of sacred Renaissance music are the ___- and the ___ mass, motet
The Renaissance _______ is a polyphonic choral work set to a sacred lation text other than the ordinary mass Motet
Josquin Desprz spent much of his life in Italy
Palestrina’s career centered in Rome
an attempt was made to purify Catholic Church music as a result of Deliberations of the council of trent
music includes 104 masses and some 450 other sacred works. Giocanni Pierluigi da Palestrina’s
The Council of Trent attacked the church music of the Renaissance because Used secular tunes, noisy instr. and theatrical singing
Palestrina’s Pope Marcellus Mass sounds fuller than Josquin’s Ave Mariabecause it is set for 6 voices instead of 4
The Renaissance madrigal began around 1520 in Italy
. During the ___________________ every ___________________ was expected to read musical notation, play amusical instrument, and be skilled in dance. Renaissance, educated person
The Renaissance madrigal is a piece for ______________________________________ set to a short poem,usually about love. several solo voices
The difference between English and Italian madrigals is that ______________________________________ havea lighter and more humorous tone. English Madrigals
Thomas Weelkes’s As Vesta Was Descending is notable for its Word painting
Besides the madrigal, the ___________________was another type of secular music that enjoyed popularityduring the Renaissance. Lute song
most popular renaissance instrument Lute
lute songs were monstly ______ in texture Homophonic
leading english composer of lute songs John dowland
In most lute songs, the lute accompaniment is _____ to the voice subordinate
During the Renaissance secular vocal music was written for groups of solo voices and for solo voice with instrumental accompaniment, secular music contained more rapid changes of mood than sacred music and a wealth of dance music published during the sixteenth century has survived.
Much of the instrumental music composed during the Renaissance was intended for Dancing
The passamezzo is a stately dance in duple meter similar to the pavane
A versatile plucked string instrument with a body shaped like half a pear, popular during the Renaissance, was th Lute