Music Flashcards

Music Exam 3

Who is one of the greatest composers of the Classical era, but also provides a connection to the Romantic era (1770-1827) Ludwig van Beethoven
Beethoven’s compositions were considered revolutionary why b/c of alterations of traditional forms and extended instrumental usage
Beethoven’s began losing his ________ during his late 20 hearing
Beethoven’s was completely deaf while composing his _____ _________. Lead poisoning may have been cause of his hearing loss. 9th symphony
Beethoven is considered a _______ ________, his sketchbooks showing how he developed his compositional ideas into complete works. musical architect
Beethoven had ______ compositional periods. The first utilized the ________ musical elements inherited from ________ and _________. The middle demonstrated strong dynamic _________, ______ _______, and longer ___________. The third emphasized _________ ________ similar to those used in the 19th century. -3-classical-Haydn and Mozart -contrasts, explosive accents, and longer movements -chromatic harmonies
Symphony No. 5 in C minor came from the _________ period. In this symphony, Beethoven expanded the dimensions of the _______ and _______ movements, creating greater balance in the work. He emphasized the _______ and made the development the _______ _______ of sonata-allegro form. -middle period -first and fourth -coda-dramatic center
Beethoven replaced the minuet with the ________, providing greater_______ and _________ energy in the 3rd movement. Beethoven’s symphonies greatly increased the number of ________ _________, making them too large for palaces and, therefore, demanding their performance be in a _______ ________. -scherzo-power and rhythmic energy -musicians required -concert hall
The __________ _________ was a multi-movement work for a solo instrument and piano or for solo piano. Beethoven’s piano sonatas are among the most significant of the Classical era. Beethoven’s Pathetique sonata (pathos) shows off the ________ of the instrument, where he brilliantly demonstrates changes in ________, use of ________ ___________ and __________ ________, and __________ __________. -classical sonata -capabilities-dynamics,uses of instrumental register and tone color, and performance virtuosity
Beethoven is best known for his _______ works (sonatas and concertos) and his symphonies. His many ________ quartets are among the greatest written. Beethoven is also noted as a song writer and was among the first great composers of __________ __________. It is in opera where he is least prolific, having written only ______ work (Fidelio). -piano works-string quartets -German IIeder -one work
Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) spent most of his career composing under the _____________ system, working for the Esterhazy family outside of Vienna. Haydn was extremely prolific as a composer, writing over _______ symphonies, ________ string quartets, piano works, cantatas, oratorios, and operas. -patronage -100 symphonies -68 string quartets
Haydn was well known for his __________ ________-_________ from, where only _______ theme was used instead of the usual two. This shortened the length of the movement and required great compositional skill. -monothematic sonata-allegro-one theme
Haydn is often considered the father of the Classical symphony and the string quartet
The ______ quartet was Haydn’s favored chamber ensemble. Consisting of 2 _________, ________, and _______ this ensemble was capable of performing in any location in the Esterhazy castle. -string quartet -2 violins, viola, and cello
Haydn was the oldest of the composers from the ____________ ____________. The others were Mozart and Beethoven. Viennese school
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) was born in Salzburg, Austria
Mozart is considered the greatest _______ ______ in the history of music child prodigy
Mozart started to compose before he was _______ years old and was performing for European royalty by age ______ -5yrs-6yrs
By age 13, Mozart had written ________,________,_______, religious works, and several _________. By adulthood, Mozart had become masterful in the composition of all musical forms. -sonatas, concertos, symphonies -operas
In 1781, Mozart’s strained relationship with the Archbishop of Salzburg came to an end. Mozart moved to Vienna to pursue the career of a ______________ ____________ freelance musician
Throughout his 10 years in Vienna he struggled ____________ due to an inability to gain favor in the court Emperor ___________. -financially-Joseph II
His marriage to Constanze Weber in 1782 severed the close family ties with his father and signaled his complete liberation from a life in ____________ servitude
The peak of Mozart’s career came with the opera _______ __________ ___ ___________ in 1786. The following year, he was commissioned to write _______ ___________ for the Prague opera. -The Marriage of Figaro -Don Giovanni
The librettist for both of these operas, and Cosi fan tutte, was ________ _____ ________. Although successful elsewhere, none of these operas achieved great success in Vienna. -Lorenzo de Ponte
Mozart spent his final years in _______ ______, yet still managed to compose a clarinet concerto, his opera The Magic Flute, and began his Requiem Mass.Mozart felt that the Mass for the Dead was intended for himself and that he would not live long enough to finish it. Mozart’s premonition about the Requiem came true and he died on December 4, 1791. Mozart’s student, Franz Xavier Süssmayr, completed the work. -poor health
Mozart’s unending supply of __________, ________, and ______-______ ___________ places him at the forefront of composers. Mozart instills a sense of _______ in his music through the use ofmoderate chromaticism and mood alteration. -simple, elegant, and song-like melodies -drama
Mozart wrote considerable amounts of social music – divertimentos and serenades. The most famous of these is the serenade _______ ______ ________, written in 1787. -Eline Kleine Nachtmusik
Mozart’s favorite form of chamber music was the _______ quarter. Among his last 10 quartets is a set of six dedicated to his friend _______ ________. One of the greatest pianists of his time, Mozart wrote many works for the instrument, including ______ sonatas and _______ concertos. -string -Joseph Haydn -17 sonatas and 27 concertos
Mozart’s symphonies show a richness of _________, _________ ______-______, and _______ _______. Newly discovered works may bring his symphonic output from 41 to more than 50. -orchestration, intricate part-writing, and great emotion
Mozart’s greatest accomplishments lie in opera, where his ability to blend vocal and orchestral sounds was unsurpassed. Mozart wrote in all three operatic styles of his time: _______ _______, _______ _______, and ___________. -opera buffa-opera seria -singspiel
Opera buffa is Italian comic opera. Mozart, utilizing the librettos of da Ponte, transformed this style in the operas The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, and Cosi fan tutte
Opera seria, or Italian serious opera, told the stories of Greek gods or great historical figures. One of Mozart’s greatest examples in this style is _____________, ______ _____ _______. -Idomeneo-King of Crete.
Singspiel is a lighter form of _________ ________ which includes ________ _______ in the place of sung recitative. Mozart’s opera _______ _________ _________ is an example of this style that eventually led the way to Viennese operetta and modern musical theater. -german opera -spoken dialogue -the magic flute
Although Mozart used many traditional elements in opera, he changed opera in many innovative ways. Mozart started to remove _________-talk-like singing which moves along the plot of the opera – in his finales at the ends of acts. His music advanced the plot through character interaction and musical continuity. recitative
Mozart wrote male parts that were sung by female singers, which became known as ________ __________ (Cherubino in The Marriage of Figaro). Other composers that followed, including Beethoven and Strauss, wrote pants roles into their operas. pants roles
The plot of Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro ________ ______ _________ ________. This plot line was extremely controversial during Mozart’s time, due to strife between the ruling class and those classes below it. satirizes the upper classes
Sonata a composition usually for one or two instruments, divided into several movements
Sonata form a form most often used in the first movement of a sonata, string quartet, symphony, etc., with three principal sections: exposition, development, and recapitulation. A slow introduction or coda may be added.
String quartet developed during classical period, for 4 string instrument including two violins, one viola and one cello
Symphony a work for orchestra, usually in three or four movements, developed during the 18th century
Theme and variations a form in which a theme is presented and then varied, modified, or altered in some way in a series of variations
Classical sonata form piece typically for one or two instruments usually including a piano
Closing passage in sonata form, the closing section of the exposition or the recapitulation
Coda Italian for “tail;” the closing section of a movement and typically forming an addition to the basic structure
Development the central section of ternary sonata form, used to develop themes from the exposition
Episode in a rondo, a passage that occurs between statements of the refrain
Exposition the first section of Classical sonata form, used to present the themes of the movement and establish two opposing keys
Minuet and trio a Baroque dance in a moderate triple meter, often used as a movement in a Classical instrumental work
Modulate change from tonic to another key
Recapitulation (or reprise) the third section of ternary sonata form, used to revisit the themes of the exposition while adhering to the tonic key
Refrain in a rondo, the principal theme, heard at the beginning and then recurring intermittently throughout the composition
Rondo a Classical instrumental form in which a refrain alternates with contrasting episodes (for example, ABABA or ABACABA)
Serenade a light instrumental composition intended for performance during the evening
Slow introduction an introductory passage in a slow tempo that precedes the exposition of a sonata form
Crescendo a gradual increase in the volume of sound
Decrescendo (diminuendo) a gradual decrease in the volume of sound
Fortepiano the precursor to the modern piano
Legato a smooth manner of performance in which notes are connected, as opposed to staccato
Staccato detached marking, shown by dots beneath the notes
Tenuto held markings
Sonata-allegro form most often used in the 1st movement of sonatas
Fanfare short, ceremonial flourish, typically played by brass instruments
Bridge in sonata form, a transition in the exposition that modulates from the first to the second key
Neoclassicism a movement in the later eighteenth century in which artists imitated the art and architecture of ancient Greece and Rome
Cadenza a virtuosic display passage, often improvised, by a soloist, as in an aria or concerto
Cavatina a short aria in an eighteenth-century opera
Opera buffa Italian comic opera
Opera seria Italian serious opera
Pizzicato a technique used by string players to pluck rather than bow the strings of their instruments
Singspiel German opera with spoken dialogue replacing recitative
Solo in a concerto, a passage that features the soloist
Tutti Italian for “all” in a concerto, a passage for the entire orchestra
Fugato a passage in the style of a fugue
Motive a short musical idea of a few notes, often used to construct a longer theme
Sforzando (sf) a sudden accent on a note or chord
The composer of this work lived and worked in Eszterhaza, a palace outside Vienna, for most of his career. The title of this piece is: “Surprise” Symphony No. 94 in G major
This piece was not named by the composer, but by an admirer after his death. The title of this work is: “Moonlight” Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor
Which of the following is the common movement arrangement for a Classical symphony?
Which composer mentioned in this section first pushed for major changes to serious opera, specifically insisting that the music should serve the drama?
How did Beethoven learn counterpoint?
What major historical event or period corresponds to Beethoven’s latter years, during which he composed from total deafness? The post-Napoleonic Restoration
In what part of sonata form are the two principle themes both stated in the tonic? Recapitulation

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