Affections The Baroque term for human emotions or states of the soul.
Polychoral Music The Baroque term that refers to music for several groups of vocal and/or instrumental choirs.
Concertato Principle The contrasting sonorities of various voice and instruments, and of large and small ensembles.
Sonata A term used to indicate a piece was to be played instruments rather than sung.
True At the end of the sixteenth century, a group of Florentine intellectuals known as the Florentine Camerata found existing vocal forms unsuited to the effective presentation of text.
True The performance of music by several spatially separated choirs of voices and/or instruments is called polychoral music.
False The use of complex polyphony when writing for multiple choirs of four or more voices and instruments was indicative of the Venetian polychoral style.
True The concertato principle became one of the underlying concepts of the Baroque style.
True Contrasting dynamic levels became a highly important characteristic of Baroque music.
True A cornetto is an ancient instrument similar to a recorder and played with a trumpet mouthpiece.
False During the Baroque period, Florentine composers conceived a new kind of song containing complex polyphony.
True Both Florentine songs and Venetian polychoral style implied a new texture of music eventually known as homophony.
True Gabrieli’s concept of contrasting piano (soft) and forte (loud) passages was relatively new, having been of little significance in Renaissance music.
All of the above (an organist, a teacher, a composer) Giovanni Gabrieli was known as
Scientists Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, William Harvey
Artists Rembrandt van Rijn, Peter Paul Rubens, Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini
Composers Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel
True The term baroque means odd, irregular, rough, or uneven.
False During the Baroque period, religion had little affect on literature, philosophy, science, art, and music.
True During the Baroque period, the secular side of life had more significance than ever before in the Christian era.
True The first book printed in America was a psalter.
False Galileo Galilei was born on the day that Isaac Newton died.
True Isaac Newton’s studies of the pendulum led to advances in measuring time in music, including the invention of the metronome.
True During the Baroque period, France excelled in the production of dramatic works.
True Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini was one of the greatest sculptors of the Baroque period.
False During the Baroque period, composers depended exclusively on aristocratic audiences.
True During the Baroque period, secular music became equal in quantity and quality to music for the church.
True The term homophony refers to a melody in one voice supported by harmony in the others.
False The Baroque bass line retained its melodic significance.
All of the above (tempo and mood, key and melodic material, texture and timbre) The movements of a multimovement composition generally contrast with one another in
All of the above (sonata, concerto, dance suite) Which of the following is an example of a multimovement work?
All of the above (every note of the major or minor scale bears a specific relationship to ever other note, all the pitches are more or less closely related to the tonic, the triad became a meaningful and consonant unit of sound) In the tonal system developed during the Baroque period
Chromaticism The use of notes from the chromatic scale.
Opera Musical dramas that are sung throughout.
Libretto The text of an opera.
Recitative An operatic song with a melody reflective of the natural inflections of speech, free or flexible rhythm and form, and generally homophonic in texture.
Bel Canto A type of opera that emphasizes the beauty and virtuosity of the singing voice, even at the expense of dramatic integrity.
Aria An operatic song that is designed to express emotion and display the singing voice, with metered rhythm, formal structure, and orchestral accompaniment.
Oratorio A dramatic vocal work based upon a religious subject, and conceived for concert performance.
Cantata A dramatic vocal work based upon a religious subject, shorter and more restrained than an oratorio, and intended for church rather than for concert performance.
False The term stile antico refers to Monteverdi’s style of choral polyphony.
True Music written stile moderno was generally homophonic in texture.
False In stile moderno the music dominated the text.
True Short but spectacular music dramas that entertained audiences between the acts of a play were known as intermedii.
False The earliest operas consisted almost entirely of the new style of vocal writing introduced by the Venetians.
True Claudio Monteverdi was a pioneer in the expression of human emotion.
True Henry Purcell is considered one of the greatest English composers of all time.
True Arias reigned supreme in late Baroque Italian opera.
True George Frideric Handel was one of the greatest organists and harpsichordists of his day.
False The year of George Frideric Handel’s death is generally accepted as the end of the Baroque era.
Text dominates music Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of stile antico?
Often used for church music Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of stile moderno?
All of the above (natural inflections that would occur in a spoken presentation of the text, usually a rather narrow vocal range, extremely high or low pitches may be used for descriptive or dramatic purposes) Which of the following describes the characteristic of the melody of a recitative?
All of the above (free or flexible, words are normally set in syllabic style, the singer freely adapts the rhythm to that of the text) Which of the following describes the characteristic of the rhythm of a recitative?
All of the above (melody and rhythm, rhythm and form, form and accompaniment) An aria differs from a recitative in
All of the above (an ostinato bass pattern over which a piece if composed, a bass pattern that recurs throughout the piece, a recurring bass pattern that supports the melody and harmonies above it) The term ground bass refers to
Castrati Which of the following were the most admired male vocalists of the Baroque era?
All of the above (is the world’s best-known and best-loved oratorio, is quite uncharacteristic of the oratorio form, was composed in about three weeks) George Frideric Handel’s Messiah
A man of the theater George Frideric Handel was
All of the above (a dedicated family man, a man of the church, practical and methodical) Johann Sebastian Bach was
Terraced Dynamics Abrupt changes in dynamic level.
Fugue A polyphonic composition, imitative in nature, with two to six melodic lines.
Chorale Prelude A prelude based on the melody of a Lutheran chorale.
Suite A multi-movement work that is an expanded version of the short sets of dance pieces popular during the Renaissance.
Chamber Music Pieces performed by a small instrumental ensemble with one instrument per line of music.
Sonata A multi-movement form of one or more solo instruments accompanied by a basso continuo.
Solo Concerto A multi-movement work (usually in three movements) that contrasts the orchestra with one solo instrument.
Concerto Grosso A multi-movement work (usually in three movements) that contrasts the string orchestra with a small group of solo instruments.
True Many musical instruments and techniques of playing instruments were extraordinarily advanced during the Baroque era.
True Several characteristics of the pipe organ made it particularly well suited to the Baroque taste for dramatic contrasts.
True A prelude is a relatively brief keyboard piece that may be either an independent composition or the introduction to another piece or set of pieces.
False The exposition (or opening section) of a fugue is usually succeeded by passages called the subject.
True A set of forty-eight preludes and fugues called The Well-Tempered Clavier is one of Bach’s greatest legacies.
False The term Well-Tempered Clavier refers to the preferred emotional state of the performer.
True With the exception of solo lute and keyboard pieces, all Baroque solo and ensemble music was accompanied by at least one sustaining bass instrument.
True The Baroque era is sometimes referred to as the Age of the Figured Bass.
False As an ordained priest, Antonio Vivaldi spent the majority of his life attending to affairs of the Church.
True The Baroque produced many beautiful sonatas for a variety of solo instruments accompanied by a continuo.
Ritornello Which of the following is NOT a part of the fugue?
Heavily orchestrated Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a toccata?
All of the above (timbres, tempos, dynamic levels) During the Baroque, new forms for keyboard and other instruments revealed appreciation for dramatic contrasts of
False During the Rococo era, composers adhered to most of the concepts developed in the Baroque era.
True The light works of the Rococo era adhered to the French concept that art should simply amuse and entertain.
True During the Rococo era, a piece or movement frequently introduced more than one melody and/or mood, in contrast to the Baroque practice of presenting one “affection” at a time.
False German composers embraced the embellishment characteristics of Rococo melodies.
True The German sensitive style was more concerned with the expression of sentiment than with elaborate embellishment of a melodic line.
True The Rococo represents a reaction against the solemnity, emotionalism, and heaviness of the Baroque.
False The best known composer of the German sensitive style was J.S. Bach.
True During the Rococo, music evolved to the less complex, more “natural” style known as Classical.
True Some Rococo melodies had two balancing phrases, anticipating the antecedent and consequent melodic phrases characteristic of music of the Classical period.
False Francois Couperin is best remembered for his lute pieces in the Rococo style.
Intellectuals Voltaire, Denis Diderot
Artists J.B.S. Chardin, Jacques-Louis David, William Hogarth, Jean-Antoine Houdon
Composers Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Joseph Haydn
True Franz Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart were consummate Classicists.
True Voltaire was one of the leaders of the intellectual movement called the French Enlightenment.
True Known for his exquisite sense of color and design, the greatest painter of mid-eighteenth-century France was J.B.S. Chardin.
False The greatest sculptor of the age was William Hogarth.
True As public concerts became more common in the eighteenth century, the average person’s experience with and appreciation for music increased.
False Female participation in public musical events continued to be forbidden during the Classical era.
True An early version of the pianoforte (or piano), called the fortepiano, was particularly well suited for the expressive music of the eighteenth century.
False Composers of the Classical period embraced the intensity of religious feeling and the dramatic contrasts popular in the Baroque.
True Classicists organized their music clearly, according to old or new principles of musical form.
False Polyphony became the predominant texture of the Classical era.
True The range of dynamic levels increased and changes of dynamics became both subtler and more dramatic.
True Composers increasingly resisted the system of support by church or noble patronage, relying more and more on public approval of their works.
All of the above (frequent references to the arts of Greece and Rome, intense concern with clarity of form and with balanced design, pervasive quality of emotional restraint) Which of the following was a characteristic of the Classical era?
Form The overall design of the work.
Symphony A multimovement composition for symphony orchestra.
Sonata-Allegro A binary design containing an exposition and a development and recapitulation.
Coda An added closing passage.
Cadenza A virtuosic solo passage, usually performed without accompaniment, and normally placed towards the end of a concert movement.
Rondo A musical form that is usually fast in tempos and merry in mood, consisting of episode interspersed between A sections, i.e., ABACA, or ABACADA, etc.
String Quartet A chamber music ensemble consisting of two violins, a viola, and a cello (and the compositions that this ensemble plays).
Minuet and Trio A three-part (ABA) form, written in triple meter, that is moderate in tempo with rather heavy accents lending it a dignified, robust character.
True Unable to organize their instrumental compositions on the basis of a text, Classical composers seriously explored the concept of form in music.
True During the eighteenth century, instrumental music surpassed vocal music in both quantity and quality.
True Form in art is based on the principles of repetition and contrast.
False The fortepiano and the harpsichord held equal popularity as solo and ensemble instruments during the Classical era.
True Composers have often found the sonata-allegro form to be the ideal formal design for the first movement of a composition.
False In sonata-allegro form, the recapitulation is an exact repeat of the exposition.
True Classical composers favored solo concertos over the concerto grosso.
True During the Classical period, cadenzas usually were not written out by the composer but were improvised by the soloist.
False The composition called a string quartet can be any type of music written for the string quartet ensemble.
True Chamber music is performed by a relatively small number of people, usually in a room smaller than a full-sized concert hall.
All of the above (a child prodigy, financially secure, one of history’s most tragic figures) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was
Rondo Which of the following is NOT a section of sonata-allegro form?
All of the above (standardizing the number of instruments, standardizing the proportion of wind instruments to strings, standardizing the melodic and harmonic responsibilities of each type of instrument in the ensemble) During the Classical era, composers expanded the Baroque concept of the orchestra by
True Composers added an introductory orchestral piece (an overture) to the opera to set the mood and introduce thematic material for the opera itself.
False Comic operas were concerned with mythical, historical, or make-believe characters and events.
True Composers attempted to make opera more “natural” by imposing on it Classical restraint.
True Opera buffa introduced the ensemble finale, a closing section in which several or all of the opera’s soloists participate.
True A pants or trousers role is a young male character performed by a female singer on the premise that a female’s voice and figure can best portray the youth and innocence of an adolescent boy.
True Sacred music in the Classical period was generally conservative in style.
False Haydn and Mozart abandoned the tradition of writing Masses, oratorios, and other religious compositions.
True The Italian opera buffa differed from other comic styles by using recitative rather than spoken dialogue between arias.
True Haydn’s oratorios and Mozart’s Requiem are major contributions to the repertoire of religious music.
La serva padrona Which of the following is NOT an opera composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart?