1820-1900 Romanticism, as a stylistic period in western music, encompassed the years
emotional restraint Which is not a characteristic aspect of romanticism in literature and painting?
nature Of all the inspirations for romantic art, none was more important than
exoticism drawing creative inspiration from cultures of lands foreign to the composer is known as
program music instrumental music associated with a story poem idea or scene
nationalism The deliberate intent to draw creative inspiration from the composer’s own homeland is known as
nationality using the rhythms of the dances of their homelands.using their national legends as subject matter.basing their music on the folk songs of their country
100 an orchestra towards the end of the romantic period would have how many players?
hector berlioz The 1844 Treatise on Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration that signaled the recognition of orchestration as an art in itself was written by
rubato A slight holding back or pressing forward of tempo in music is known as
thematic transformation Altering the character of a melody by changes in dynamics, orchestration, or rhythm is a romantic technique known as
napoleonic wars Because of the French Revolution and the __________________, many aristocrats could no longer afford to maintain private opera houses, orchestras, and “composers in residence.”
beethoven The composer whose career was a model for many romantic composers was
franz Liszt A romantic composer who earned his living as a touring virtuoso was
niccolo paganini A composer who earned his/her living as a violin virtuoso was
women were at first accepted only as students of performance, but by the late 1800s could study musical composition.
piano A very important musical part of every middle-class home during the romantic period was the
schuman Music criticism was a source of income for both Hector Berlioz and
solo voice and piano an art song is made for a
lied The word ___________ is commonly used for a romantic art song with a German tex
postlude The mood of an art song is often set by a brief piano introduction and summed up at the end by a piano section called a
schubert was the first great master of the romantic art song.
600 schuberts songs number more than
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Schubert was eighteen years old when he composed the song Erlkönig, set to a poem by
through composed the form of erlking is
death The Erlking, in Schubert’s song of that name, is a romantic personification of
clara wieck the daughter of Schumann’s piano teacher, a virtuoso pianist and Schumann’s wife
schumann published the new journal of music to promote musical originality and combat the commercial trash that flooded the market.
cycle of piano pieces Robert Schumann’s Carnaval is a(n)
johannes brahms was a close friend of Clara and Robert Schumann.
clara schumann did some composing, but considered herself primarily a performer
mazurkas Chopin expressed his love of Poland by composing polonaises and
are exquisite miniatures Most of Chopin’s pieces
nocturne A slow, lyrical, intimate composition for piano, associated with evening and nighttime, is the
an etude A study piece, designed to help a performer master specific technical difficulties, is known as
pianist Until the age of thirty-six, Franz Liszt toured Europe as a virtuoso
liszt who’s piano works are characterized by an unprecedented range of dynamics, rapid octaves, daring leaps & arpeggios.
symphonic poem Liszt created the ______________, a one-movement orchestral composition based to some extent on a literary or pictorial idea.
bach Mendelssohn is known as the man who rekindled an interest in the music of
absolute Nonprogram music is also known as _____________ music.
program symphony A ____________ is an instrumental composition in several movements based to some extent on a literary or pictorial idea.
incidental music Music intended to be performed before and during a play to set the mood for scenes or highlight dramatic action is known as
incidental music Today’s movie scores may be regarded as examples of
love for the actress hariett smithson The Fantastic Symphony reflects Berlioz’s
march to the scaffold The fourth movement of Berlioz’s Fantastic Symphony depicts a
why people were startled by berliozs symphony sensationally autobiographical program. amazingly novel orchestration.vivid description of the weird and diabolical.
musical journalism in order to support his family schubert turned to
conductor Outside France, Berlioz enjoyed a great career as a(n)
tone colors Berlioz was extraordinarily imaginative in treating the orchestra, creating ____________ never before heard.
idee fixe The contrasting episodes of Berlioz’s Fantastic Symphony are unified by the recurrence of a theme known as the
smetana The founder of Czech national music was
moldau Even though Smetana was deaf at the time, he composed a musical work depicting Bohemia’s main river as it flows through the countryside. The name of the river, and the musical composition, is the
african american spirituals Dvořák “found a secure basis for a new national [American] musical school” in
new york In 1892, Dvořák went to ___________, where he spent almost three years as director of the National Conservatory of Music.
resembled swing low sweet chariot in the first movement of the New World Symphony, Dvořák composed a theme that
maurice ravel Mussorgsky’s piano composition Pictures at an Exhibition is best known today in its brilliant orchestral arrangement by
Robert and clara schumann The course of Brahms’s artistic and personal life was shaped by the influence of the composer
seemed to condone rape suicide etc Critics were often scandalized by the subject matter of Verdi’s operas because they
expressive vocal melody The soul of a Verdi opera is
rigoletto The famous aria La donna è mobile is taken from Verdi’s opera
verismo An artistic trend of the 1890s, in which operas dealt with ordinary people and true-to-life situations, was known as
madame butterfly and turandot Some of Puccini’s operas feature exoticism, as in his use of melodic and rhythmic elements derived from Japanese and Chinese music in his operas
bayreyth germany Wagner’s preeminence was such that an opera house of his own design was built in _________________, solely for performances of his music dramas.
Ludwig Van Beethoven The composer who had an overwhelming influence on the young Wagner was
richard wagner The librettos to The Ring of the Nibelung were written by
leitmotif A short musical idea associated with a person, object, or thought, used by Richard Wagner in his operas, is called
symphonies The major portion of Mahler’s creative output consists of