Ch. 5 The character of the minuet is best described as stately and dignified
Ch. 5 A common rondo pattern is ABACABA
Ch. 5 A brilliant solo section in a concerto designed to display the performer’s virtuosity is called a cadenza
Ch. 5 The usual order of movements in a classical symphony is fast, slow, dance-related, fast
The typical orchestra of the classical period consisted of strings, pairs of woodwinds, horns, trumpets, and timpani
In many of Beethoven’s works there is a ___________ movement instead of the minuet. scherzo
The standard catalog of the compositions of Mozart was made by Ludwig von Köchel
Chamber music is characterized by having one performer per part
A string quartet is a musical composition for two violins, viola, and cello
Classicism, as a stylistic period in music, figured prominently during the years 1750-1820
Theme-and-variations form may be schematically outlined as ABA
The minuet is generally the _____ movement of a classical symphony. third
The classical concerto is a large-scale work in three movements for solo instrument and orchestra
A piano sonata is a musical composition in two or more movements for piano
A symphony is a sonata for orchestra
The word baroque has at various times meant all of the following except Correct answers include: elaborately ornamented, flamboyant, bizarre.The except answer is: naturalistic
Baroque style flourished in music during the period 1600-1750.
Instrumental music became as important as vocal music for the first time in the ____________ period. late baroque
Affections in baroque usage refers to emotional states or moods of music.
A baroque musical composition usually expresses ____________within the same movement. one basic mood
Terraced dynamics refers to the sudden alternation from one dynamic level to another.
The main keyboard instruments of the baroque period were the organ and the harpsichord
The word movement in music normally refers to a piece that sounds fairly complete and independent but is part of a larger composition
The position of the composer during the baroque period was that of a high-class servant with few personal rights.
The concerto grosso most often has three movements whose tempo markings are fast, slow, fast
The first and last movements of the concerto grosso are often in ____________ form. ritornello
The main theme of a fugue is called the subject
An ____________ is a play, set to music, sung to orchestral accompaniment, with scenery, costumes, and action. opera
____________ refers to a vocal line that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech. Recitative (think recite)
A Vivaldi concerto usually has ____________ movements. three
While at Leipzig, Bach All of the followingtaught organ and composition, gave recitals, and was often asked to judge the construction of organs. was responsible for the musical education of some 55 students in the St. Thomas school. rehearsed, conducted, and usually composed an extended work for chorus, soloists and orchestra for each Sunday and holiday of the church year.
Sets of dance-inspired instrumental movements are called suites
A sung piece, or choral work with or without vocal soloists, usually with orchestral accompaniment, is the cantata
In their use of aria, duet, and recitative, Bach’s cantatas closely resembled the ____________ of the time. operas
Oratorio differs from opera in that it has no acting, scenery, or costumes.
Pope Gregory the Great 1CLeader of Roman Catholic Church for 24 plus years. Allegedly was told by god to begin to make and write music but no proof exists.
Hildegard von Bingen 1CFirst composer we have written history of, a german woman. She was sent to a nunnery, and as a kid had intense religious visions and dreams. To compose she would sing aloud, have a assistant record it and then she would go back and put add texts over them.
Anonymous IV 1DEnglish monk of the 14th century. The person who recognized Leonin and Perotin as masters who wrote the best 2,3 and 4 part organums. As a part of the Notre Dame Cathedral he published magnus liber organia which was a collection of polyphonic works.Associate with Leonin, Perotin, Notre Dame, and Polyphonic music.
Leonin 1DEarlier of two masters of Notre Dame. Added a newly composed part to an existing church chant melody. Superimposed the words on top of the melody making it a 2 part polyphony.
Perotin After Leonin as a master of Notre Dame. Made 3 and 4 part polyphonies. He added one or two new sets onto the chants that Leonin left making them 3 and 4 layers respectively.
Guillaume de Machaut 1DFirst composer in Western music for which we have a complete corpus. (in bold idk what a corpus is)wrote poetry and wrote in the rondo form which was’ABaAabAB” in form
Josquin de Prez 1Ewrote “Ave Maria…virgo serena”wrote in a form of a renaissance motet. His music was first to become widely distributed due to publishing and reached great popularity.
Giovanni Palestrina 1ESaved polyphonic music by composing the Pope Marcellus Mass that showed polyphony could work with religious text and meanings.
Thomas Weelkes 1EEnglish composer, famous for writing madrigals in the 16th century
Claudio Monteverdi 2AFully developed the madrigal that Weelkes used. His madrigals were innovative and radical compared to others in the time. He also published the first operatic masterpiece and marked the transition between renaissance and baroque.
Orpheus/Orfeo 2AMythology. Son of a muse and god apollo. He was the greatest of all musicians and could charm over any object, ex. rock, animal, lamp.
Euridice 2Aorpheus’ wife in mythology. Was bitten by a viper so she went to the underworld. Orpheus went to Hades and Pluto and sang to them and eventually persuaded them to let Euridice come back. With one condition he could never look her in the face. He did and she went back to hell. He got sad.
Henry Purcell 2BEnglish composer. Worked for the King as head organist of Westminster Abbey. He took a bribe got caught and was let go.
Dido 2BPurcell’s opera. Notable because it was sung in English, first time ever. The opera had 3 acts. It was only performed one time and that was to a girls boarding school in Chelsea. His only opera of 43 compositions.
Antonio Vivaldi 2DInfluenced by Corelli. He was a read head who wrote fanfares and upbeat compositions for festivals
Arcangelo Corelli 2DMaster composer of sonatas. German descent. First major composer to specialize his works to specific instruments, in his case the violin.
Jean Baptiste Lully 3AAppointed the head of the French music department by Louis XIV and was in charge of all production and publishing of music in france.
Johann Sebastian Bach 3AGreatest composer of the baroque era. He was a master organist. At the time his works were considered out of date and laughable. It was only later that he received the credit for being a master composer.
George Handel 3CGerman. Combined French, Italian, English and German styles for a new synthesis. With this new style he was the first composer to remain in permanent place in performing repertoire.
Joseph Haydn 4AClassical Period. Austrian. Oldest member of the Viennese Classical Style. (mozart and beethoven) the others. He developed the symphony “par excellence” with meant full size and developed the string quartet.Wrote 100 symphonies, 80 quartets and 20 stage works
Nicholas “The Magnificent” 4AWealthy european prince. Hired Haydn and became his “protector and patron” He fancied the baryton an out of date instrument that was not used anymore. Haydn went on to write 150 works for the baryton.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 4Bclassical period, Viennese Classical style. Lousy gambler. Child prodigy started composing at age 6. died at age 35.
Ludwig van Beethoven 5Asingle most influential composer of the 19th century. first great composer of the romantic era. He took the works of mozart and haydn and made pieces in the Viennese style that built of the others’ influences. He was the first entirely freelance composer. Brought in new influences of brass and percussion and grew overall symphony size. Went completely deaf but composed great works without hearing known as his “heroic phase”
Napoleon Bonaparte 5AFrench leader during the Revolution. “Savior of democratic ideals during the revolution” Beethoven made a composition dedicated to Napoleon i think.
Gregorian/Latin Chant 1Bearliest music of the church. consisted of melodicized prayers, no musical accompaniment. Created by a cluster of monks chanting in unison, documentation of this began written music, called “The word”
Friedrich Schiller 5Bwrote “ode to joy.”That work inspired Beethoven’s 9th symphony. One of Beethoven’s favorite german poets.
scriptorium 1Cgroup of monks that worked in special offices and cubicles within a monastery producing ornate musical manuscripts.
Alleluia: Vidimus Stellum 1B”we have seen his star”Latin chant, monophonic, a capella.From the medieval period.
Mass ordinary 1CNormal routine, same prayers and chants that did not change and a part of traditional religious services.
Mass Proper 1CMusic changes based on the calendar day or season. ex. specific observances special prayers would be used like easter, feast days, saint days.
Ave Maria…Virgo Serna 1E listening guideComposed by Josquin de Prez. Has 4 voices over the instruments so it has 4 layers=polyphonic. His most popular motet, uses points of imitation.
countenance angloise 1EMeans ‘English quality” or “English Manner” of composition
The old hall manuscript 1EA collection sacred and liturgical pieces of music. Serves a our historical link between the two time periods.(english medieval renaissance)
Renaissance/”the golden age of a cappella music.” 1E-Didn’t have a lot on this is intimately expressive of word.
Ars Nova 1D”The New art” time period in France developed highly sophisticated notation for rhythmic values.
Council of Trent 1ECreated to help purge church of dissension. Music was a topic addressed by them. Said music was ” inappropriate use of instruments” they wanted to eliminate polyphonic music.
Points of imitation 1E Listening guide Sucessive entrances of voices imitate each others melodic lines. each successive entrance echoes the one before it. in “ave Maria…Virgo Serna”
Melodic Contour 1Bmelodic shape, created by successive changes in pitch the rising and falling of high and low tones.
dynamics Volume and changes in volume. pianissimo, piano, moderato, forte, fortissimo.
dissonance Disagreement amongst notes in a chord
frotolla 1Ehomophonic style with 3 or 4 parts. The upper voice carries the main melodic line. some had plucked string instruments or lutes as accompaniment. Used for italian secular song in 15th-16th century and laid foundation for madrigal.
‘El Grillo” 1Efrotolla in 4 parts by josquin.
madrigal 1Eword/text painting meaning they use music to reinforce suggested images of text. playful and witty became popular among amateur musicians. Instead of being sung in church language (latin) it was sung in locals local tongue.
castrato 2CThe lead male singer in a serious opera. A mature male who had been castrated before his voice had hit puberty. Unusual tone and pitch like a young boy.
solo concerto 2Da single soloist vies for attention against an orchestra.(8-20 people) usually violin?
tutti 3Bthe larger group of the orchestra offsetting the soloists in a concerto grosso. Dominated by a string section.
Fugal Subject/answer 3BSubject=main theme. fugal=polyphonic based off of the subject. answer=the 2nd entrance, the part that answers the subject
concerto grosso 2D2-4 soloists compete against the tutti or full orchestra.
the pieta 2Dstate funded home for orphaned and abandoned girls. they were taught music by best instructors around and would perform for wealthy and titled.
oratorio 3CGeorge Handel. rooted in secular where sermons or “orations” were developed into songs. Singing of these sacred songs was influence on italian opera.
messiah 3Can oratorio by handel. in 1741-42. It is about the old testaments prophets and their fulfillment through christ. 3 acts, 50 scenes.
cantata 3AMulti-stage extended chorale that was liturgical (religious work). drawn from the italian opera (chorale aria and recitative). No acting, no costumes, public paid to view.
Chorale 3Alutheran roots from the reformation with luther. has a 4 part style being soprano, alto, tenor and bass as the basic model. still used and taught today
viennese classical style 4AStarted by Haydn in the classical period. This style includes Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.
symphony 4A/B2 hour instrumental concerts from the classical period. 30-40 people in the group back then. used violas, violins, cellos, bass. Violins held main melody. Mozart added the clarinet.
Symphonic structure Made up of 4 parts1-Fast, sonata form in the main key to open the symphony and set key.2-Slow, lyrical movement. different key than intro. Could be in ABA format or in the sonata minus the development section.3-A minuet in ABA form. Same key as opening. 3/4 time signature.4-Finale, fast, often in sonata allegro form
classical string quartet 4Acredited to Haydn developed into 4 movement structure. Refer to quiz question in this deck for the make up.
sonata allegro 4A”First Movement” form.formal design for countless classical period compositions. Loved by Mozart. Most common form in first movements of pieces in this period. has 3 parts within this one movement. first is exposition which exposes the theme and establishes the central key to the piece. Development-moves through many keys so increase instability Recapitulation-recaps the piece and returns to the main key signature established in the exposition
Cadenza 3Bsolo
double exposition 3Atwo structural levels unfolding at once. establishing two main keys
Don Giovanni 4D1787 known for mixing serious and comedic opera structures to attain great popularity. Lots of other stuff about this but i did not think it was important.
Dramma Giocoso 4Dimported italian genre that freely mixed the serious opera and buffa opera styles. Don Giovanni is often referred to as a key example of this genre. (jocular drama)
“Heiligenstadt Testament” 5Afound in Beethoven’s personals when he died. Recorded his despairs and said how he was suicidal. Music and giving that gift to the world was motivation for stopping that. at least until he felt his potential was tapped. Means he was well aware of his courage and self greatness.
“As Vesta was Descending” 1EBy Thomas Weelkes. Part of an anthology titled the triumph of orian. a collection of english madrigals.
A capella 1BVocal music without instrumental accompaniment.ex. choir with no back ground instruments.
Monody: aria and recitative 2AAria: a highlight, a solo or duet playing an extremely lyrical expression and are historically treasured. It serves as a showcase for individual ability and allowed a dramatic window into the eyes of the character.Recitative:Musical recitation of words in a manner that is like chanting or heightened speech. Monody:Solo voice sung with musical accompaniment.revolutionary derived from ancient Greece used in 17th century italy.
The Camerata 2A”The Society”-a group of intellectuals including vincezo galilei, galileo’s dad.They analyzed music from a set of hypothesis’.(and tried to return it to what they want 1- recreate drama of ancient song and verse. vocals should be singular and not include polyphonic complexities.2- monody that emulates the ancients music is necessary.3-instruments are allowed but should never obscure singing4-rhythm and melody should mimic emotionally charged speaking.
strophic form 2A Listening Guidevocal form in which the same music is repeated for each stanza of a text.
Stanza A verse?
timbre 1BInstrumental color, each person and instrument is unique. it is how we can tell apart instruments of people’s voices.
Texture 1B# of layers of music that are sounding at any point in time
monophony 1B”one sound”, type of texture made when people are singing one melodic line. ex. singing happy birthday. all in unison so it is monophonic.
Polyphony 1B2 distinct sounds going at once, multiple layer.
libretto/librettist the person who records the composers work into a “libretto” of little book that contains scripts of the opera.
doctrine of the affections 2Bidea that “one piece, one affect” 6 basic emotions and only 1 can be present at a time
word painting 1ESee madrigal, using musical gestures to emulate spoken word
Tu se Morta 2A”you are dead”most famous part of monteverdi’s opera l’orfeo. orfeo is told that his wife is dead
continuo 2Brefers to certain types of instruments and their functions as well as a instrumental core found in all styles of baroque. Provides the bass lines and chords.
figured bass 2Dnotational shorthand, that gives bass line and chord symbols to instruct what keyboard to play from. used for the harpsichord in continuos.
melismatic 1C listening Guidemelisma- Phrase of many notes sung to a single syllable of text
basso ostinato/ground bass 2Dpersistent, constant bass line. relatively short pattern in the bars, repetition is defining framework.
masque 2BMultimedia framework for drama, poetry, song, dance,
ritornello 3Bbook end or pillars on either side of the slow lyrical part of a concerto solo. This part is the principal of main part that established both melodic line and key
sonata 2DMulti sectional works in which all sections were of same form.Usually 4 separate movementssonata de camera-Chamber sonata–Dance related movements but intended for listeningSonata de chiesa- church sonata.
The Eroica Listening guide for 5th symphonyBeethoven’s 3rd symphony
The ‘choral’ symphony used in beethoven’s 9th symphony, it combined forces forces of orchestra and choir.
ode to joy poem that inspired the 9th symphony written by friedrich schiller
Fate Motive 5th symphony opening. Basic structure is short, short, short, long
Beethoven Process The process of building a massive work out of the simplest materials. He starts from a mere idea and explores every musical possibility