Music Flashcards

Music 111 Baroque

Baroque at various times has meant: Elaborately ornamentedFlamboyantBizarre
Modern historians use the term baroque to indicate A particular style in the arts
Who was not a baroque painter Isaac Newton
Baroque painters exploited their materials to expand the potential of _____ to create totally structured worlds ColorOrnament and detailDepth
Baroque style flourished in music 1600-1750
The baroque, as a stylistic period in western art music, encompassed the years 1600-1750
The two giants of baroque composition were George Frideric Handel Johann Sebastian Bach
Who was not a major baroque composer Wolfgang A. Mozart
True or FalseThe late baroque period was one of the most revolutionary periods in music history False
One of the most revolutionary periods in music history Early baroque
The early baroque was characterized by Homophonic texture
The early baroque years 1600-1640
Monteverdi Early baroque composer, strove to create music that was passionate and dramatic
The early and late baroque periods differed in that composers in the early baroque Favored homophonic texture
The middle baroque was characterized by a diffusion of the style into every corner of Europe
The middle baroque period years 1640-1690
Composoers in the middle baroque phase favored writing compositions for instruments of the _______ family Violin
By about the _____ century, major or minor scales were the tonal basis of most compositions 1690
Instrumental music became as important as vocal music for the first time in the _____ period Middle baroque
The late baroque years 1690-1750
Affections in baroque usage refers to emotional states or moods of music
A baroque musical composition usually expresses __________ within the same movement One basic mood
The baroque principle of ______________may be temporarily suspended in vocal music when drastic changes of emotion in a text inspires corresponding changes in the music Unity of mood
The compelling drive and energy in baroque music are usually provided by Repeated rhythmic patterns
Baroque melodies often are Elaborate and ornamental
Baroque melodies give the impression of Dynamic expansion
Melodic sequence refers to The successive repetition of a musical idea at higher or lower pitches
A characteristic often found in baroque melodies is A short opening phrase followed by a longer phrase with an unbroken flow of rapid notes
Terraced dynamics refers to The sudden alternation from one dynamic level to another
The main keyboard instruments of the baroque period were the organ and the Harpsichord
A popular keyboard instrument in which sound was produced bby means of brass blades striking the strings was the Clavichord
The most characteristic feature of baroque music is its use of Basso Continuo
A bass part together with numbers (figures) that specify the chords to be played above it is called Basso Continuoo
The word movemnet in music normally refers to A piece that sounds fairly complete and independent but is part of a larger composition
True/FalseAudiences in the baroque period were most anxious to hear old familiar favorites, and did not care for new music False
A large court during the barowue period might employ about ______ performers 80
The music director of a baroque court was usually not responsible for Publicity in reaching an audience
Frederick the Great, king of Prussia, was a FlutistGeneralComposer
The position of the composer during the baroque period was that of A high-class servant with few personal rights
In the baroque period, the ordinary citizen’s opportunities for hearing music usually came from the Church
In Italy, music schools were often connected with Orphanages
To get a job, a musician had to Pass a difficult exam
A concerto grosso most often has ________ movement(s) Three
The large group of players in a concerto grosso is known as the Tutti
The concerto grosso most often has three movements whose tempo markings are Fast, slow, fast
The first and last movements of the concerto grosso are often in ________ form Ritornello
True/FalseA concerto grosso normally involves a large group of soloists accompanied by an equal number of supporting players False
The solo instruments in Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 are the _________, violin, and harpsichord Flute
Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 is unusual in that It gives a solo role to the harpsichord
A musical ornament consisting of the rapid alternation of two tones that are a whole or half step apart is a Trill
A polyphonic composition based on one main theme is the Fugue
The main theme of a fugue is called Subject
When the subject of a fugue is presented in the dominant scale, it is called the Answer
In many fugues, the subject in one voice is constantly accompanied in another voice by a different melodic idea called Countersubject
Transitional sections of a fugue that offer either new material or fragments of the subject or countersubject are called Episodes
Musical procedure in which a fugue subject is imitated before it is competed Stretto
A _______ is a single tone, usually in the bass, that is held while the other voices produce a series of changing harmonies against it Pedal point
Turning he subject of a fugue upside down, or reversing the direction of each interval is called Inversion
Presenting the subject of a fugue from right to left, or beginning with the last and proceeding backward to the first note is called Retrograde
Presenting the subject of a fugue in lengthened time values is called Augmentation
Presenting the subject of a fugue in shortened time values is called Diminution
Very often an independent fugue is introduced by a short piece called Prelude
An_____ is a play, set to music, sung to orchestral accompaniment, with scenery, costumes, and action Opera
The text, or book, of a musical dramatic work Libretto
True/FalseThe terms ensemble and chorus are synonyms False
A song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment is called Aria
Recitative Refers to a vocal line that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech
Basso Buffo Is a singer with a low range who usually takes comic roles
Basso Profundo Is a singer with a very low range and powerful voice, who usually takes roles calling for great dignity
Duet musical number for two solo voices with orchestral accompaniment
Ensemble Operatic number involving three or more leading singers
Conductor Person who beats time, indicates expression, cues in musicians, and controls the balance among instruments and voices
Overture Is an orchestral composition performed before the curtain rises on a dramatic work
Members of the Camerata wanted to create a new vocal style based on the Music of the ancient Greek tragedies
Members of Camerata wanted the vocal line of their music to follow The rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech
Most early baroque operas were based on Greek mythology and Ancient history
True/FalseThe members of the Florentine Camerata based their theories on actual dramatic music that had come down to them from the Greeks False
The first opera house in Europe to offer entry to anyone with the price of admission opened in 1637 Venice
The earliest opera that has been preserved is Jacopo Peri’l Euridice
The stage machinery of baroque opera Bordered on the colossal
Castrati Received the highest fees of any musiciansCombined the lung power of a man with the vocal range of a womanWere male singers who had been castrated before puberty
Secco Recitative Speechlike melody accompanied only by a basso continuo
A typical baroque operatic form was the da capo aria in ABA form in which the singer Was expected to embellish the returning melody with ornamental tones
Embellishments Ornamental tones not printed in the music that seventeenth- and eighteenth- century performers were expected to add to the melody
Monteverdi spent the greater part of his career in St. Mark’s, Venice
Tremolo Evoke angry or warlike feelings in some of his texts, Monteverdi introduced new orchestral effects, including pizzzicato and ______
To achieve intensity of expression, Monteverdi used___________ with unprecedented freedom and daring Dissonances
Monteverdi’s vocal music ordinarily was supported by a ______ and other instruments Basso continuo
Orpheus goes to Hades in the hope of bringing ____________ back to life Eurydice
True/FalseAll twelve of Monteverdi’s operas are regularly performed in Europe and America False
True/FalseHenry Purcell was virtually unknown in his own time, but today is considered England’s most significant composer from the Baroque Era False
The respect given Henry Purcell by his fellow Englishmen is evidenced by his burial in Westminster Abbey
Basso Ostinato (Or ground bass) Is a musical idea repeated over and over in the bass while melodies above it constantly change
Dido and Aeneas, which many consider to be the finest opera ever written to an English text, was composed by Henry Purcell
Henry Purcell’s opera Dido and Aeneas was inspired by the Aeneid, an epic poem by Virgil
The sonata in the baroque period was a composition in several movements for One to eight instruments
Baroque trio sonatas usually involve __________ performers Four
A sonata intended to be played in church, and therefore dignified and suitable for sacred performance, was called a Sonata da chiesa
Corelli spent most of his adult life in Rome
Corelli advanced violin technique by introducing chords and Double stops
In addition to being an important composer, Arcangelo Corelli was also the leading Italian _________ of his time Violinist
True/FalseThe trio sonata usually involved three performers, two on high instruments and one on a bass line False
Corelli’s Trio Sonata in A Minor, op. 3, no. 10, consists of four short movements, all in the same Key
Corelli’s Trio Sonata in A Minor, op. 3, no. 10,is scored for Two violins and basso continuo
True/FalseLike other composers of his time, Corelli wrote musical compositions in all baroque forms False
Characteristic of baroque trio sonatas, the second movement of Corelli’s Trio Sonata in A Minor, op. 3 no. 10, is Fugue-like
The theorbo is a Plucked string instrument capable of producing chords as well as a bass line
Vivaldi spent most of his life working at an institution for orphaned and illegitimate girls in Venice
Vivaldi was famous and influential as a virtuoso Violinist
Vivaldi wrote approximately ______ concerti grossi and solo concertos 450
A Vivaldi concerto usually has _________ movements Three
The longest period of Johann Sebastian Bach’s professional life was spent as director of music at St. Thomas’s Church in Leipzig
Of Bach’s twenty children, ____ went on to become well-known composers Four
True/FalseBach was recognized as the most eminent composer of his day False
Although all the movements of a baroque suite are in the same key, they differ in MeterNational OriginTempo
What is not a part of the baroque suite Waltz
Baroque suites frequently begin with a French overture
The French overture has Two sections: slow-fast
In Bach’s day, the Lutheran church service lasted about _____ hours Four
The Lutheran chorale tunes Had been adapted from Catholic hymnsWere composed in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuriesHad been adapted from folk songs
The ______ is a Lutheran congregational hymn tune Chorale
Congregational singing of chorales was an important way for people to Participate directly in the service
The __________ is an instrumental composition based on a chorale Chorale prelude
A ______ is a short instrumental composition based on a hymn tune that reminds the congregation of the hymn’s melody Chorale Prelude
Oratorios first appeared in Italy
Oratorio Large-scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra, usually set to a narrative biblical text
Oratorio differs from opera in that it has no Acting, scenery, or costumes
The first oratorios were based on Stories from the Bible
The _________ is an oratorio is especially important and serves either to comment on or to participate in the drama Chorus
Pieces of an oratorio are usually connected together by means of A narrator’s recitatives
George Frideric Handel was born in 1685, the same year as Johann Sebastian Bach
Handel spent the major portion of his life in England
In addition to being a composer and opera impresario, Handel was a virtuoso Organist
Handel’s Messiah is an example of Oratorio
Although Handel wrote a great deal of instrumental music, the core of his huge output consists of English oratorios and Italian Operas
What oratorios did Handel write MessiahIsrael in EgyptJoshuaSaul
True/FalseMost of Handel’s oratorios are without plot or characters since they were primarily intended for church use False
True/FalseThe baroque suite is a musical form exclusive to the orchestra. False
A two-part collection of preludes and fugues, one in each major and minor key, basic to the repertoire of keyboard players today, is Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier
Bach achieves unity of mood in his compositions by using an insistent rhythmic drive
Bach’s personal musical style was drawn from Italian concertosFrench dance piecesGerman church music
Bach created masterpieces in every baroque form except the opera
Bach was recognized as the most eminent ____________ of his day. organist
While at Leipzig, Bach Taught organ and composition, gave recitals, and was often asked to judge the construction of organs.Was responsible for the musical education of some 55 students in the St. Thomas school.Rehearsed, conducted, and usually composed an extended work for chorus, soloists and orchestra for each Sunday and holiday of the church year.
Vivaldi wrote concertos for a variety of instruments
Some of Vivaldi’s instrumental concertos were arranged by Johann Sebastian Bach.
True/FalseLike Corelli, Vivaldi wrote only instrumental music. False
A sonata to be played at court, and therefore dancelike in character, was called a sonata da camera
A sung piece, or choral work with or without vocal soloists, usually with orchestral accompaniment, is the Cantata
When chorale melodies were harmonized for church choir, the tune was given to the Congregation
In their use of aria, duet, and recitative, Bach’s cantatas closely resembled the ___ of the time Operas
True/FalseWhen chorale melodies were harmonized for church choirs, the tune was assigned to the tenors False
True/FalseOratorios first appeared in England False
In oratorio, the story is carried forward by the Narrator’s recitatives
Handel’s oratorios are usually based on the Old Testament

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